Augmenting the Role of Tourism Governance in Addressing Destination Justice, Ethics, and Equity for Sustainable Community-Based Tourism
2. Literature Review Leading to SCBT Framework
2.1. History—The Emergence of “Sustainable Development”
2.2. Emergence of Sustainable Tourism Development (STD)
2.3. CBT and Other Alternative Tourism Approaches to STD
2.4. Dimensions of Community-Based Tourism (CBT)
2.5. Comparing ST and CBT: Similarities and Differences
2.6. Critique of ST and CBT
2.7. CLR Summary on ST and CBT and Identification of Gaps
2.8. Theoretical and Conceptual Perspectives for the Empirical Study
- Each person has the same indefeasible claim to a fully adequate scheme of equal basic liberties, which scheme is compatible with the same scheme of liberties for all; and
- Social and economic inequalities are to satisfy two conditions: first they are to be attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity; and second, they are to be to the greatest benefit of the least-advantaged members of society (the difference principle)”  (pp. 42–43).
- Research Question: How do the various stakeholders feel about tourism development in BCS, specifically, with respect to the distribution of tourism related goods and resources (Distributive Justice), and with respect to ethic of care?
- How are tourism revenues (receipts?) and goods (benefits) being distributed among the tourism industry?
- Mechanisms for distribution? Who gets what?
- Do you believe tourism revenues have been distributed fairly among the tourism industry stakeholders? Were there financial incentives and opportunities to encourage locals to own and operate their own tourism-related businesses?
- Did tourism workers in BCS receive a fair wage (in relation to living standards and wages)? Should more be done to provide a “living wage”?
- How were the minority operated tourism businesses and attractions faring? Should they get more assistance from tourism revenues and benefits in BCS?
- Are there financial or other incentives (or special programs) for enabling lower income groups and residents (e.g., minority populations) to engage in tourism development?
- Overall costs and benefits: Are the costs and benefits of tourism to BCS being fairly distributed? Do you feel you are getting a fair share of the overall benefits? How are the residents benefitting? How are minority populations and low income residents benefitting from tourism?
- Who decides how the tourism revenues/benefits are to be distributed? (Government and CVB, but what role does the local industry play here?)
- How much attention is being paid to fostering cultural pride and respect for the diverse cultural groups (residents) and traditions in BCS (through tourism)?
- What do you (and other service providers) do to educate the visitors about the diverse history and culture of BCS?
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Study Context
3.2. Study Participants and Design
3.3. Data Analysis
4.1. Distribution of Tourism Revenues and Benefits
4.2. Consideration to Ethic of Care
I do not know on the lower back of the house type positions, …I think that there is so much competition in our community that they have to pay them well to keep them.
- City facilities and services upgradation and development spurred by GST and tourism-Including Veteran’s Park upgradation, access to facilities for kids, and free pre-natal and medical services, stated by 14 participants.
- Enhancing quality of life and community attractiveness (#1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 13, 16, and 17).
- Sales tax helping lower property taxes (#1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, and 19); and increase in property values but reduction on resident taxes (#12 and 30).
- Multiplier economic effects of tourism, including benefits through game days and other events/festivals, more business (as more people came in) and economic benefits to everybody, retention of some local businesses and moving of other businesses to BCS, opportunities for sharing business with College Station (for Bryan), and tourism provided opportunities to meet new people (stated by 23 participants).
- Enhanced community pride/image, including appreciation of community history and pride; post visit promotion of BCS; and tourism making the town livelier, cleaner, more interesting, more accessible, and safer than 5–10 years ago, and some people showing interest to move to BCS (suggested by 10 participants).
- Income and employment generation, including influx of cash/money, job creation, and economic growth (stated by 14 participants).
4.3. Data-Driven Themes
Do you want to add some aspects you think important but were not included/discussed in the questionnaire?
6. Practical Implications of the Research
7. Conclusions and Limitations
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Sustainable tourism||“Tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment, and host communities”  (p. 12).|
|Community-Based Tourism||“CBT is generally small scale and involves interactions between visitor and host community, particularly suited to rural and regional areas. CBT is commonly understood to be managed and owned by the community, for the community”  (p. 2).|
|Ecotourism||“Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, sustains the well-being of the local people, and involves interpretation and education”  (para.1).|
|Geotourism||“Tourism that sustains or enhances the distinctive geographical character of a place—its environment, heritage, aesthetics, culture, and the well-being of its residents”  (para. 1).|
|Responsible Tourism||Responsible Tourism is about “making better places for people to live in and better places for people to visit, in that order”  (para. 2).|
|Pro-Poor Tourism||“Tourism that puts those people living in poverty at the top of the agenda. PPT strategies are concerned with reducing both absolute and relative poverty by providing tourism-related income opportunities for disadvantaged groups”  (p. 10).|
|Dimensions||Summary of SCBT Criteria/Themes Combined from Various Sources *||Source/Authors|
|Economic||Economic Benefits; Local Jobs and Participation; Institutional Mechanism to Ensure Economic Benefits; Visitor Management.||* For details see  (pp. 65–68), &  (pp. 17–20).|
|Environmental/Ecological||Protection of Natural Environment;|
Innovating Adapting to Environment-friendly Plans; Assessment and Monitoring.
|* For details see  (pp. 65–68), &  (pp. 17–20).|
|Social-cultural||Community Wellbeing & Satisfaction;|
Community Participation & Empowerment; Visitor Satisfaction.
|* For details see  (pp. 65–68), &  (pp. 17–20).|
Management & Marketing;
Power, Rules &Regulations;
Visitor Safety & Crisis Management;
Collaboration/Coordination; Participation; Service Delivery; Accountability; Transparency; Equity; Communication; Leadership; Political; Technological.
|* For details see  (pp. 65–68), &  (pp. 17–20).|
|Dimensions||Summary of SCBT Criteria/Themes (with details) combined from various sources||Source/Authors|
|Under-represented issues of Justice, Ethics and Equity|
(In the domain of governance)
|Justice in Tourism, Good-Action & Virtuous Tourism:|
Inter-and intragenerational equity; equitable distribution of costs and benefits, goods and services; distributive justice benefiting disadvantaged populations; respect and recognition of diverse values; north-south equity, self-determination and autonomy of indigenous people; environmental and social–cultural justice; destination justice; address discrimination, racism, inclusiveness, human rights, etc.
Equity and Fairness:
Fair distribution of goods and resources; equal employment opportunity (EEO) for all including women, youth, disabled and vulnerable population; poverty reduction; gender equity and social inclusion; fair wages and employment; respect and enable human rights; affordability and access (services targeted to low income, poor and disadvantaged populations).
Related ethical issues:
Understanding and applying moral/ethical principles in tourism; address intrinsic and instrumental values: utilitarian ethics; virtue ethics; respect for persons: Categorical Imperative (Kant), Ethics and the “Other”; feminist ethics, ethic of care, etc.”  (p. 68), &  (p. 20).
|Participant Names with Identifiers (Participant #)||Participant Types||Category Total|
|BCS Convention and Visitors Bureau (CVB #1), The Arts Council (#3), Downtown Bryan Association (DBA #8), BCS Chamber of Commerce (#2), and Brazos Valley Lodging Association (BVLA #4)||Associations||5|
|Eight restaurants (#6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 18, 20 and 21)||Restaurants||8|
|Five hotels and resorts (#5, 9, 22, 24 and #25)||Hotels & resorts||5|
|Brazos Valley African American Historical Cultural Society (BVAAHCS #17), African-American Museum (AAM #26), African-American Church (AAC #30), Fiesta Patrias (#16), Advent GX (#12)||Community/cultural organizations||5|
|City of Bryan (#7), City of College Station (#28), Brazos County Office (#23), George Bush Presidential Library and Museum (GBPLM #19), and Texas A&M University (TAMU) Athletics Department (#29)||Government offices||5|
|Pedi cab (#10), and Antiques/Art/Crafts shop (#27)||Others||2|
|Five housekeeping staff at hotels (#31, 33, 34, 35 and 36), and Five hotel/restaurant kitchen staff (#32, 37, 38, 39 and 40)||Backstage/housekeeping and kitchen staff||10|
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Dangi, T.B.; Petrick, J.F. Augmenting the Role of Tourism Governance in Addressing Destination Justice, Ethics, and Equity for Sustainable Community-Based Tourism. Tour. Hosp. 2021, 2, 15-42. https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp2010002
Dangi TB, Petrick JF. Augmenting the Role of Tourism Governance in Addressing Destination Justice, Ethics, and Equity for Sustainable Community-Based Tourism. Tourism and Hospitality. 2021; 2(1):15-42. https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp2010002Chicago/Turabian Style
Dangi, Tek B., and James F. Petrick. 2021. "Augmenting the Role of Tourism Governance in Addressing Destination Justice, Ethics, and Equity for Sustainable Community-Based Tourism" Tourism and Hospitality 2, no. 1: 15-42. https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp2010002