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Volume 23, PAPC 2022
 
 
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Environ. Sci. Proc., 2022, ECERPH-4 2022

The 4th International Electronic Conference on Environmental Research and Public Health—Climate Change and Health in a Broad Perspective

Online | 15–30 October 2022

Volume Editors: Jon Øyvind Odland, Pál Weihe, Trond Flaegstad, Elisabeth Darj, Giovanni Gabutti and Valerii Chashchin

Number of Papers: 10
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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 4th International Electronic Conference on Environmental Research and Public Health—Climate Change and Health in a Broad Perspective (ECERPH-4) was held from 15 to 30 October 2022 as an [...] Read more.
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Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 24(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2022024010 - 11 Jan 2023
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Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Environment Sciences Proceedings, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article

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Proceeding Paper
Fibropapillomatosis on Sea Turtles, a Sentinel of Ecosystem Health?
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 24(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-4-13096 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 183
Abstract
Cutaneous fibropapillomatosis, first reported in green turtles (Chelona mydas) in 1930, is considered a global epizootic that affects up to 97% of sea turtles, with major consequences for threatened populations. Although this is a benign tumour that arises on the skin [...] Read more.
Cutaneous fibropapillomatosis, first reported in green turtles (Chelona mydas) in 1930, is considered a global epizootic that affects up to 97% of sea turtles, with major consequences for threatened populations. Although this is a benign tumour that arises on the skin or internal organs, it can have serious and potentially fatal consequences when it compromises critical functions such as swimming, feeding, or breathing. The aetiology of this tumour is not yet well defined, but it has been primarily associated with Chelonide herpesvirus 5. Some studies also highlight exogenous environmental factors such as water temperature and pollutants, which may have caused a host-virus–host imbalance and the onset of the disease. Climate change seems to have a role in the dissemination of this pathology among sea turtle populations. Although not fully understood, the relationship between fibropapilomatosis and the state of environmental health is well recognized. Further research is needed to better understand this disease, which silently devastates entire populations of marine turtles. Daily human activities may have a greater impact on wildlife populations than can be expected. There is an urgent need to reverse human threats to wildlife. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Occupational and Environmental Chemical Risk Assessment in a Changing Climate: A Critical Analysis of the Current Discourse and Future Perspectives
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 24(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-4-13105 - 26 Oct 2022
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Abstract
Global climate change (GCC) models predict direct changes in region-specific rainfall patterns, floods, sea levels, infectious and heat-related disease patterns. The indirect effects of GCC on chemical risk assessment (CRA) have not received adequate attention. This study presents a synopsis of the implications [...] Read more.
Global climate change (GCC) models predict direct changes in region-specific rainfall patterns, floods, sea levels, infectious and heat-related disease patterns. The indirect effects of GCC on chemical risk assessment (CRA) have not received adequate attention. This study presents a synopsis of the implications of GCC on CRA, which forms the basis for both occupational and environmental health. GCC can make organisms more sensitive to chemical stressors, and chemical exposures can make organisms more sensitive to GCC. Consequently, occupational and environmental chemical RA will need mechanistic understanding and analytical tools to predict outcomes of multiple stressors and their combined effects. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Air Pollution Derivatives Linked to Changes in Urban Mobility Patterns during COVID-19: The Cartagena Case Study
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 24(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-4-13108 - 27 Oct 2022
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Abstract
The impact of the pandemic caused by COVID-19 on air pollution in our cities is a proven fact, although its mechanisms are not known in detail. The change in urban mobility patterns due to the restrictions imposed on the population during lockdown is [...] Read more.
The impact of the pandemic caused by COVID-19 on air pollution in our cities is a proven fact, although its mechanisms are not known in detail. The change in urban mobility patterns due to the restrictions imposed on the population during lockdown is a phenomenon that can be parameterized and studied from the perspective of spatial analysis. This study proposes an analysis of the guiding parameters of these changes from the perspective of spatial analysis. To do so, the case study of the city of Cartagena, a medium-sized city in Spain, has been analyzed throughout the period of mobility restrictions due to COVID-19. By means of a geostatistical analysis, changes in urban mobility patterns and the modal distribution of transport have been correlated with the evolution of environmental air quality indicators in the city. The results show that despite the positive effect of the pandemic in its beginnings on the environmental impact of urban mobility, the changes generated in the behavior patterns of current mobility users favor the most polluting modes of travel in cities. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Temperature Changes and Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality: Global Trends, 1990–2019
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 24(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-4-13106 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Joinpoint regression analysis was applied to calculate the average annual percent change (AAPC), with 95% confidence interval (CI), to evaluate global ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality trends in 1990–2019. In 2019, there were disparities by sex in terms of the contribution of non-optimal [...] Read more.
Joinpoint regression analysis was applied to calculate the average annual percent change (AAPC), with 95% confidence interval (CI), to evaluate global ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality trends in 1990–2019. In 2019, there were disparities by sex in terms of the contribution of non-optimal temperature to global IHD mortality: for low temperature (5.99% in males and 6.19% in females, respectively) and high temperature (0.50% in males and 0.44% in females, respectively). A decreasing trend for global IHD mortality attributed to low temperature was observed in males (AAPC = −1.7%; 95% CI = −1.8 to −1.6) and females (AAPC = −2.1%; 95% CI = −2.1 to −2.0). Full article
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Proceeding Paper
The Impact of Temperature Changes on Global Stroke Mortality—Ischemic Stroke, Intracerebral and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 24(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-4-13107 - 26 Oct 2022
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Abstract
The percentage of stroke deaths attributable to low temperature was 7.23% in 2019, accounting for 474,002 stroke deaths globally, while about 48,030 of the stroke deaths were attributed to high temperature. Joinpoint regression analysis was applied to calculate the average annual percent change [...] Read more.
The percentage of stroke deaths attributable to low temperature was 7.23% in 2019, accounting for 474,002 stroke deaths globally, while about 48,030 of the stroke deaths were attributed to high temperature. Joinpoint regression analysis was applied to calculate the average annual percent change (AAPC) with 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate stroke mortality trends in 1990–2019. Trends from global stroke mortality attributed to low temperature significantly declined (AAPC = −2.5%; 95%CI = −2.6 to −2.3) in both sexes together. A significantly increased trend for stroke mortality attributed to high temperature was observed in both sexes together (AAPC = +1.0%; 95%CI = 0.6 to 1.3). Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Socio-Environmental Risk Management of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Central America: Unity Became Strength Even in Times of Uncertainty
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 24(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-4-13101 - 25 Oct 2022
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Abstract
This brief note discusses the articulation of Central American countries in the fight against the pandemic from a socio-environmental perspective. Central America is one of the most disaster-prone regions in the world; hurricanes, earthquakes, droughts, floods, and volcanic eruptions are the main threats [...] Read more.
This brief note discusses the articulation of Central American countries in the fight against the pandemic from a socio-environmental perspective. Central America is one of the most disaster-prone regions in the world; hurricanes, earthquakes, droughts, floods, and volcanic eruptions are the main threats to the nations. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 exacerbated the socio-environmental risks, demanding the emergency action of joint management within the framework of the Central American Integration Scheme (CAIS). Thus, technical meetings of the Coordination Center for Disaster Prevention in Central America sought to maintain a synergy to reduce social vulnerability and the environmental impacts of the pandemic. The region adopted intersectorality as a mechanism of articulation among all CAIS-derived bodies, allowing for more comprehensive humanitarian assistance to groups at higher risk (involving all human life cycles). The joint negotiation between the countries sought to provide technical support for estimates and projections for the calculation of needs, as well as to adjust health measures in each country according to the following scenarios recommended by WHO: (i) no cases, (ii) sporadic cases, (iii) clusters of cases, and (iv) sustained transmission. Therefore, the countries promoted the participation of the population in the prevention and mitigation phases, which helped to mitigate the pent-up demand in the health sector and strengthened community-based interventions. Thus, the region managed to keep the case fatality rate below 3% and reinforce compliance with local sanitary measures in the first two pandemic years due to the multi-systemic approach to risk management. The role of the community led to the development of social groups more aware of socio-environmental and public health responsibilities, besides the benefits of working as a collective. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Potential Hazard to Human and Animal Health from Bacterial and Fungal Contaminants in Small Freshwater Reservoirs
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 24(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-4-13071 - 17 Oct 2022
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Abstract
In general, the assessment of microbiological quality in aquatic systems focuses on the presence of some bacterial groups or species. Although quantification of fungi presence is not a mandatory parameter, recently the WHO advises its detection/quantification. Its concentration and diversity varies greatly among [...] Read more.
In general, the assessment of microbiological quality in aquatic systems focuses on the presence of some bacterial groups or species. Although quantification of fungi presence is not a mandatory parameter, recently the WHO advises its detection/quantification. Its concentration and diversity varies greatly among the various types of aquatic systems. Fungi are mesophilic, dependent on organic matter to grow and their presence can be associated with pollution. Depending on their concentration and diversity, fungi may pose a risk to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the presence of some bacterial indicators (Escherichia coli, fecal enterococci, among others) and fungi (total yeasts and molds) in freshwater reservoirs (water tanks) with different sources, sun exposures and anthropogenic and animal influences. Additionally, it was intended to assess the diversity of molds. For this, filamentous colonies were isolated, purified, and morphologically identified (whenever possible to the genus). The three tanks differed in bacterial (presence of Escherichia coli, fecal enterococci, Proteus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus) and fungal (total and mold) presence. Regarding molds, 16 different taxa were identified and, depending on the water tank, the Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium genera and the Chytridiomycota phylum were the most representative. Some of the taxa isolated may pose a risk to human and animal health (Trichophyton, Aspergillus fumigatus and some dematiaceous). The water reservoirs presented different fungal communities. Although preliminary, the results show that freshwater tanks can be a source of potentially pathogenic bacteria and fungi to humans and animals that use them. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Indoor Air Quality (PM2.5 and PM10) and Toxicity Potential at a Commercial Environment in Akure, Nigeria
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 24(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-4-13103 - 26 Oct 2022
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Abstract
According to studies, indoor air quality is a major concern because of the health risks it poses. In Nigeria, little is done to improve indoor air quality and the toxicity potentials (TP) of PM2.5 and PM10. We assessed the levels [...] Read more.
According to studies, indoor air quality is a major concern because of the health risks it poses. In Nigeria, little is done to improve indoor air quality and the toxicity potentials (TP) of PM2.5 and PM10. We assessed the levels of PM2.5, PM10, the PM2.5/PM10 ratio, and the toxicity potential of a commercial area in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, in this study. For the three-month assessment of the study area (March to May 2022), a low-cost sensor (Canāree A1) was used. The results depict the following: 73.23 ± 53.94 µg/m3 (PM2.5), 68.58 ± 50.64 µg/m3 (PM10), 0.93 ± 0.02 (PM2.5/PM10 ratio), and toxicity potentials (PM2.5—2.74 ± 0.04 and PM10—1.47 ± 0.02). Both PM values exceed the WHO standard limits. The PM values differ significantly. The average ratio value indicates that anthropogenic activities in the area contribute significantly to the high PM2.5 levels. It should be noted that TP greater than 1 indicates a potential health risk. The TP values obtained in this study are greater than 1, indicating that the environment may be harmful to the vulnerable. Based on these findings, efforts should be directed toward continuous monitoring of this study area and Akure as a whole. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Ambient Temperature Effect on Pregnancy Outcomes: Single Center Experience from Belgrade
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 24(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-4-13102 - 26 Oct 2022
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Abstract
Background: Climate change with global warming and frequent summer heatwaves could negatively impact pregnancy outcome; however, this is still not well understood. Objective: To assess the association between ambient temperatures of the last 4 weeks of pregnancy with higher risk for [...] Read more.
Background: Climate change with global warming and frequent summer heatwaves could negatively impact pregnancy outcome; however, this is still not well understood. Objective: To assess the association between ambient temperatures of the last 4 weeks of pregnancy with higher risk for preterm stillbirth. Material and Methods: Study included all pregnant women with preterm stillbirth (20 to 37 weeks of gestation) treated in the Clinic for Ob/Gyn University Clinical Center of Serbia during a ten-year period (2010 to 2019). We used meteorological data (minimal, mean and maximal temperatures) per year and month for the city of Belgrade which were provided by Republic Hydrometeorological Society of Serbia and are freely available. Results: During the study period, 409 stillbirths occurred in our clinic (1.02% of all deliveries). Gestational week of stillbirth ranged from 18 to 33 (mean ± SD = 23.8 ± 2.9). Mean temperatures ranged from −3.3 °C (January 2017) to 27 (July 2012). Rates of stillbirths were similar in spring and summer compared to autumn and winter months (233 vs. 186; p = 0.317), as well as if temperatures were <15 °C and ≥15 °C (200 vs. 209, p = 0.854). Moreover, there was no trend in stillbirth rates in relation to ambient temperatures of the last 4 weeks of pregnancy (p = 0.435). Conclusion: Risk for preterm stillbirth was not associated with ambient temperatures of the last 4 weeks of pregnancy. Full article
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