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Article

Impact of Wind on the Spatio-Temporal Variation in Concentration of Suspended Solids in Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Environment and Society, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-M1-4, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan
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Policy Research Institute, A Think-Tank of the Government of Nepal, 3rd Floor of Federal Secretariat Construction and Management Building, Sano Gaucharan-5, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
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General Department of Science, Technology & Innovation, Ministry of Industry, Science, Technology & Innovation, Preah Norodom Boulevard, Sangkat Phsar Thmey III, Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh 120203, Cambodia
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Research and Innovation Center, Institute of Technology of Cambodia, Phnom Penh 12000, Cambodia
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Faculty of Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering, Institute of Technology of Cambodia, Russian Federation Blvd., P.O. Box 86, Phnom Penh 12156, Cambodia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christopher Gomez, Junun Sartohadi and Frans Persendt
Earth 2021, 2(3), 424-439; https://doi.org/10.3390/earth2030025
Received: 27 March 2021 / Revised: 6 June 2021 / Accepted: 30 June 2021 / Published: 6 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Hazards and the Sediment Cascade)
Even though wind, water depth, and shear stress are important factors governing sediment resuspension in lakes, their actual relations to total suspended solids (TSS) distribution in natural environments have not been well elucidated. This study aims to elucidate the impact of the wind on the spatio-temporal variation of TSS in Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia, during low-water (March and June, <1 m) and high-water (September and December, 8–10 m) seasons. To this end, wind and TSS data for December 2016 and March, June, and September 2017 were collected and analyzed. For spatial interpolation of wind speed, the inverse distance weighted method was found to be better (R2 = 0.49) than the vectorized average (R2 = 0.30) and inverse of the ratio of distance (R2 = 0.31). Spatial interpolation showed that the wind speed and direction on the lake were <5 m/s and southward during the low-water season and <7 m/s and westward during the high-water season. The TSS concentration in the low-water season was higher (>50 mg/L) than that in the high-water season. The TSS concentration during the low-water season was empirically described by wind speed (W), water depth (D), and shear stress (τ_wave) with a function of W3, W3/D, and exp(W/D) or exp(τ_wave), depending on the location in the lake. The critical shear stress due to wind-induced waves at most of the places in the lake was higher than the total shear stress indicated. Sedimentation was predominant in December and June, and erosion (siltation) was dominant in March. Most of the siltation in March was dominant in the southern part of the lake. View Full-Text
Keywords: wind speed and direction; spatio-temporal; total suspended solids; interpolation; shear stress; Tonle Sap Lake wind speed and direction; spatio-temporal; total suspended solids; interpolation; shear stress; Tonle Sap Lake
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sato, M.; Khanal, R.; Uk, S.; Siev, S.; Sok, T.; Yoshimura, C. Impact of Wind on the Spatio-Temporal Variation in Concentration of Suspended Solids in Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia. Earth 2021, 2, 424-439. https://doi.org/10.3390/earth2030025

AMA Style

Sato M, Khanal R, Uk S, Siev S, Sok T, Yoshimura C. Impact of Wind on the Spatio-Temporal Variation in Concentration of Suspended Solids in Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia. Earth. 2021; 2(3):424-439. https://doi.org/10.3390/earth2030025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sato, Michitaka, Rajendra Khanal, Sovannara Uk, Sokly Siev, Ty Sok, and Chihiro Yoshimura. 2021. "Impact of Wind on the Spatio-Temporal Variation in Concentration of Suspended Solids in Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia" Earth 2, no. 3: 424-439. https://doi.org/10.3390/earth2030025

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