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Endocrines, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2023) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): It is essential for contemporary medical practice not only to treat patients with type 1 Diabetes (T1D) but also to investigate the pathophysiology of diabetes complications, many of which start early in the course of disease. Osteoporosis, with lifelong increased fracture risk, is among the detrimental complications of T1D with significant costs of care for these patients. Leptin and adiponectin are the least studied possible contributors to diabetes-induced osteopenia. In this framework, we conducted a case–control cross-sectional study in T1D children and adolescents and controls to investigate adipokines’ associations with clinical and biochemical parameters so as to hypothesize their possible role in developing the low bone mass phenotype of T1D patients. View this paper
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16 pages, 347 KiB  
Review
Focus on Thyroid Cancer in Elderly Patients
by Rosa Lauretta, Marta Bianchini, Marilda Mormando, Giulia Puliani and Marialuisa Appetecchia
Endocrines 2023, 4(4), 757-771; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines4040055 - 5 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2209
Abstract
Thyroid cancer is more aggressive in elderly patients due to biological causes related to age, histotype, and the advanced stage at diagnosis. In the elderly, both the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer impact quality of life. This review aimed to collect and [...] Read more.
Thyroid cancer is more aggressive in elderly patients due to biological causes related to age, histotype, and the advanced stage at diagnosis. In the elderly, both the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer impact quality of life. This review aimed to collect and discuss the different therapeutic approaches in elderly patients affected by thyroid cancer. Our analysis examined the therapeutic surgical approach according to age and how this affects the prognosis of patients with thyroid cancer, along with how iodine 131 therapy is tolerated and how effective it is. Furthermore, we investigated whether levothyroxine suppressive therapy is always necessary and safe in elderly patients with thyroid cancer and the safety and efficacy of systemic therapy in the elderly. We also intended to identify peculiar features of thyroid cancer in elderly subjects and to evaluate how the disease and its treatment affect their quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Endocrines 2023)
15 pages, 312 KiB  
Review
A Scoping Review of Potential Biological Mechanisms and Predictors of Interpersonal Psychotherapy
by Victoria Papke, Hopewell Hodges, Kristina Reigstad, Meredith Gunlicks-Stoessel and Bonnie Klimes-Dougan
Endocrines 2023, 4(4), 742-756; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines4040054 - 1 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1134
Abstract
Social dysfunction plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of depression in both adolescents and adults. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A) are effective, evidence-based, and time-limited treatments for depression that aim to mitigate depressive symptoms by [...] Read more.
Social dysfunction plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of depression in both adolescents and adults. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A) are effective, evidence-based, and time-limited treatments for depression that aim to mitigate depressive symptoms by strengthening an individual’s interpersonal relationships and skills. Though the efficacy of IPT/IPT-A has been well established, we are just beginning to know how biological systems are implicated in its success. In this scoping review, we examine the extant literature on biological mechanisms and predictors of IPT/IPT-A treatment efficacy. Overall, seven studies were identified that consider biological processes in the context of evaluating IPT/IPTA, and the studies that were conducted are typically preliminary in nature. Notably, there is some evidence showing that the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, various frontal and limbic brain regions, and behavioral indexes that represent brain functioning are associated with changes in IPT/IPT-A or predictive of IPT/IPT-A outcomes. We also consider consequences for treatment and future research. The hope is that a better understanding of how and for whom IPT/IPT-A works can optimize the success of the treatment in reducing an individual’s depressive symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hypothalamic Involvement in Human Health)
20 pages, 1023 KiB  
Review
Thyroid and Heart: A Fatal Pathophysiological Attraction in a Controversial Clinical Liaison
by Alessandro Pingitore, Francesca Mastorci, Maria Francesca Lodovica Lazzeri and Cristina Vassalle
Endocrines 2023, 4(4), 722-741; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines4040053 - 30 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
The thyroid–heart relationship has a long and articulated history of its own, a history that encompasses physiological and pathophysiological knowledge. In recent years, molecular biology studies, in an experimental context, have highlighted the extraordinary dialogue that exists among the two systems in the [...] Read more.
The thyroid–heart relationship has a long and articulated history of its own, a history that encompasses physiological and pathophysiological knowledge. In recent years, molecular biology studies, in an experimental context, have highlighted the extraordinary dialogue that exists among the two systems in the field of cardioprotection, which is an extremely important area for the treatment of cardiac diseases in both acute and chronic phases. In addition, in the last few years, several studies have been carried out on the prognostic impact of alterations in thyroid function, including subclinical ones, in heart disease, in particular in heart failure and acute myocardial infarction, with evidence of a negative prognostic impact of these and, therefore, with the suggestion to treat these alterations in order to prevent cardiac events, such as death. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the heart–thyroid relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thyroid Endocrinology)
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2 pages, 188 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: “X-Linked Hypophosphatemia”
by Seiji Fukumoto and Yukihiro Hasegawa
Endocrines 2023, 4(4), 720-721; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines4040052 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 927
Abstract
Rickets and osteomalacia are associated with impaired mineralization in growth plate cartilage and the bone osteoid [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on X-linked Hypophosphatemia)
11 pages, 675 KiB  
Article
Higher Adiponectin Levels in Children and Adolescents with T1D Probably Contribute to the Osteopenic Phenotype through the RANKL/OPG System Activation
by Charalampos Tsentidis, Dimitrios Gourgiotis, Lydia Kossiva, Antonios Marmarinos, Artemis Doulgeraki and Kyriaki Karavanaki
Endocrines 2023, 4(4), 709-719; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines4040051 - 3 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Background: Diabetes mellitus is an increasing global health emergency, with serious complications (including osteoporosis). Leptin and adiponectin are among the least-investigated possible contributing factors of T1D low bone mass. Methods: In this case-control cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated 40 pairs of T1D children and [...] Read more.
Background: Diabetes mellitus is an increasing global health emergency, with serious complications (including osteoporosis). Leptin and adiponectin are among the least-investigated possible contributing factors of T1D low bone mass. Methods: In this case-control cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated 40 pairs of T1D children and adolescents and controls. We evaluated body diameters and skinfolds, leptin, adiponectin, lipids and lipoproteins, bone metabolic markers and DXA parameters of BMD and fat percentage. Results: Leptin levels were comparable between groups and correlated well with body mass parameters. Adiponectin levels were found to be higher in the patient group and correlated with higher levels of HbA1c, triglycerides and s-RANKL. Conclusions: In this study, leptin levels were no different, but adiponectin levels were found to be higher in children and adolescents with T1D and correlated with diabetic metabolic derangement indices and s-RANKL in the patient group. Adiponectin can be considered a surrogate marker of T1D in young patients’ metabolic status and probably contributes to the diabetic low bone mass phenotype via activation of the RANKL/OPG metabolic pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diabetes Care)
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13 pages, 352 KiB  
Article
Frontal Lobe Functions and Quality of Life in Individuals with Obesity with and without Binge Eating Disorder
by Fátima Gameiro, Beatriz Rosa and Miguel Faria
Endocrines 2023, 4(4), 696-708; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines4040050 - 8 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Frontal lobe functions (FLFs) play an important role in human behavioral regulation and can be a determinant of eating behavior. The aim of this study was to analyse FLFs in individuals with obesity, with and without binge eating disorder (BED), compared to individuals [...] Read more.
Frontal lobe functions (FLFs) play an important role in human behavioral regulation and can be a determinant of eating behavior. The aim of this study was to analyse FLFs in individuals with obesity, with and without binge eating disorder (BED), compared to individuals with normal weight (NW), and to analyse the effect of sex and binge disorder on quality of life, with age and BMI as covariates. A total of 114 participants, comprising three different groups (NW individuals, individuals with obesity but without BED, and individuals with obesity and BED), completed the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life (IWQOL-lite) questionnaires. The results showed that individuals with obesity, with and without BED, have poorer frontal lobe functioning than the NW group. Individuals with obesity and BED have lower performance in terms of FLFs than individuals with obesity but without BED. Male participants have a higher perception of quality of life in all dimensions, with women showing lower values in self-esteem and sex life. Individuals with obesity and BED show greater weaknesses in physical function. These results suggest that low FLFs and worse quality of life characterize individuals with obesity, and this is more evident in these individuals with BED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome)
11 pages, 451 KiB  
Perspective
Insulin Resistance and Glucose Metabolism during Infection
by Borros Arneth
Endocrines 2023, 4(4), 685-695; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines4040049 - 7 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1651
Abstract
Specific critical functions of endocrine and immune cells ensure that an individual remains healthy and free from infection. This study aimed to explore immune–endocrine associations involved in disease. Methods: The PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant articles [...] Read more.
Specific critical functions of endocrine and immune cells ensure that an individual remains healthy and free from infection. This study aimed to explore immune–endocrine associations involved in disease. Methods: The PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant articles using the following search terms and phrases: “hormones”, “hormonal responses”, “immune system”, “endocrine system”, “infection”, “immune cells”, “endocrine cells”, “infection”, “immune”, “endocrine”, and “interactions”. The search was limited to articles published between 2009 and 2023. Results: A review of ninety-three studies showed that metabolic activity levels in the body as well as energy consumption patterns are affected by feedback loops that connect the endocrine and immune systems. The associations between endocrine cells and immune cells are complex and involve a wide range of hormones, molecules, and receptors related to antipathogen responses and metabolic regulation. Conclusions: During infection, endocrine cells and immune cells interact via feedback loops to ensure optimal energy utilization and a timely response to pathogens. Therefore, the endocrine system helps to regulate systemic metabolism while controlling the outcomes of regulatory elements of the immune system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Endocrines 2023)
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13 pages, 663 KiB  
Review
An Update on Experimental Therapeutic Strategies for Thin Endometrium
by Yiqun Tang, Caroline Frisendahl, Parameswaran Grace Lalitkumar and Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson
Endocrines 2023, 4(4), 672-684; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines4040048 - 4 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3875
Abstract
Infertility caused by a thin endometrium remains a significant challenge in assisted reproduction and is often associated with a low success rate after treatment with assisted reproductive technology. There is a lack of consensus in the field concerning both its diagnostic criteria and [...] Read more.
Infertility caused by a thin endometrium remains a significant challenge in assisted reproduction and is often associated with a low success rate after treatment with assisted reproductive technology. There is a lack of consensus in the field concerning both its diagnostic criteria and clinical management. The currently available treatment options are few with limited efficacy. Recent advances in cell therapy and bioengineering have, however, shown promising results for the treatment of a thin endometrium. Notably, these novel interventions have demonstrated the ability to increase endometrial thickness, restore endometrial function, and improve reproductive outcomes. In this comprehensive review, we focus on a critical evaluation of these emerging therapeutic strategies for a thin endometrium including platelet-rich plasma, exosomes derived from stem cells, and bioengineering-based techniques. By synthesizing the findings from available clinical trials, we highlight the promising outcomes achieved so far and underscore the importance of robust clinical trials in assessing the safety and efficacy of these interventions in the future. Continued research efforts to unravel the intricate mechanisms involved in endometrial repair and regeneration will also be essential to enhance our understanding of this multifactorial condition and to identify novel treatment targets for future therapeutic interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Female Reproductive System and Pregnancy Endocrinology)
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