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Modelling, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2022) – 4 articles

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Article
Modeling of a Three-Stage Cascaded Refrigeration System Based on Standard Refrigeration Compressors in Cryogenic Applications above 110 K
Modelling 2022, 3(2), 255-271; https://doi.org/10.3390/modelling3020017 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 267
Abstract
More and more applications, such as natural gas liquefaction, LNG reliquefaction, whole body cryotherapy and cryopreservation, require cooling in the temperature range from 110 to 150 K. This can be achieved in systems using standard refrigeration compressors, which are reliable and cost-effective, but [...] Read more.
More and more applications, such as natural gas liquefaction, LNG reliquefaction, whole body cryotherapy and cryopreservation, require cooling in the temperature range from 110 to 150 K. This can be achieved in systems using standard refrigeration compressors, which are reliable and cost-effective, but are subject to certain operating limits. This paper investigates the potential of a three-stage cascaded refrigeration system based on standard refrigeration compressors in this range of temperatures. The investigation takes into account the vital limitations of refrigeration compressors and aims to look for possible refrigerant configurations (taking into account PFCs, HFCs, HCs and HOs); performance limitations such as cooling power temperature and system COP; and the influences of system architecture (single-stage and two-stage compression). The paper investigates whether it is possible to design a three-stage cascaded refrigeration system using standard refrigeration compressors, and if so, at what cost? This investigation shows that the three-stage cascaded refrigeration system can reach the lowest temperature of 127 K with a COP of 0.179, which corresponds to a Carnot efficiency of 0.262. Moreover, systems based on natural refrigerants are found to be advantageous in terms of achieved temperatures compared to those that use synthetic refrigerants. Furthermore, only the application of R50 (methane) is shown to allow temperatures below 130 K to be achieved, and this is possible only in a two-stage compression cascade system. For most of the investigated configurations, the suction pressure must be below atmospheric pressure to thermally couple cascade stages. Full article
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Article
Cost Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Section According to Flexural Cracking
Modelling 2022, 3(2), 243-254; https://doi.org/10.3390/modelling3020016 - 25 May 2022
Viewed by 342
Abstract
A series of distributed flexural cracks develop in reinforced concrete flexural elements under the working load. The control of cracking in reinforced concrete is an important issue that must be considered in the design of reinforced concrete structures. Crack width and spacing are [...] Read more.
A series of distributed flexural cracks develop in reinforced concrete flexural elements under the working load. The control of cracking in reinforced concrete is an important issue that must be considered in the design of reinforced concrete structures. Crack width and spacing are influenced by several factors, including the steel percentage, its distribution in the concrete cross-section, the concrete cover, and the concrete properties. In practice, however, a compromise must be made between cracking, durability, and ease of construction and cost. This study presents the optimal design of a reinforced concrete cross-section, using the optimization method of mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) and the Eurocode standard. The MINLP optimization model OPTCON was developed for this purpose. The model contains the objective function of the material cost considering the crack width requirements. The crack width requirements can be satisfied by direct calculation or by limiting the bar spacing. Due to the different crack width requirements, two different economic designs of reinforced concrete sections were proposed. The case study presented in this study demonstrates the value of the presented optimization approach. A direct comparison between different methods for modelling cracking in reinforced concrete cross-sections, which has not been done before, is also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation- and Modelling-Aided Structural Integrity and Safety)
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Article
Methods, Models and Tools for Improving the Quality of Textual Annotations
Modelling 2022, 3(2), 224-242; https://doi.org/10.3390/modelling3020015 - 12 Apr 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
In multilingual textual archives, the availability of textual annotation, that is keywords either manually or automatically associated with texts, is something worth exploiting to improve user experience and successful navigation, search and visualization. It is therefore necessary to study and develop tools for [...] Read more.
In multilingual textual archives, the availability of textual annotation, that is keywords either manually or automatically associated with texts, is something worth exploiting to improve user experience and successful navigation, search and visualization. It is therefore necessary to study and develop tools for this exploitation. The paper aims to define models and tools for handling textual annotations, in our case keywords of a scientific library. With the background of NLP, machine learning and deep learning approaches are presented. They allow us, in supervised and unsupervised ways, to increase the quality of keywords. The different steps of the pipeline are addressed, and different solutions are analyzed, implemented, evaluated and compared, using statistical methods, machine learning and artificial neural networks as appropriate. If possible, off-the-shelf solutions will also be compared. The models are trained on different datasets already available or created ad hoc with common characteristics with the starting dataset. The results obtained are presented, commented and compared with each other. Full article
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Article
Improving Mobile Game Performance with Basic Optimization Techniques in Unity
Modelling 2022, 3(2), 201-223; https://doi.org/10.3390/modelling3020014 - 28 Mar 2022
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Creating video games can be a very complex process, which requires taking into account various hardware and software limitations. This process is even more complex for mobile games, which are limited to the resources that their platforms (mobile devices) offer in comparison to [...] Read more.
Creating video games can be a very complex process, which requires taking into account various hardware and software limitations. This process is even more complex for mobile games, which are limited to the resources that their platforms (mobile devices) offer in comparison to game consoles and personal computers. This restriction makes performance one of the top critical requirements, meaning that a videogame should be designed and developed more carefully. In order to reduce the resources that a game uses, there are optimization techniques that can be applied in different stages of the development. For the purposes of this article, we designed and developed a simple shooter videogame, intended for Android mobile devices. The game was developed with the Unity game engine and most of the models were designed with the 3D computer graphics software Blender. Two versions of the game were developed in order to study the differences in performance: one version that applies basic optimization techniques, such as low poly count for the models and the object pooling algorithm for the enemy’s spawn; and one where the aforementioned optimizations were not used. Even though the game is not large in scale, the optimized version achieves a better user experience and needs less resources in order to run smoothly. This means that in larger and more complex video games these optimizations could have a bigger impact on the performance of the final product. To measure how the techniques affected the two versions of the game, the values of frames per second, batches and triangles/polygons were taken under consideration and used as metrics for game performance in terms of CPU usage, rendering (GPU usage) and memory usage. Full article
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