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The Evolution of the Cryopreservation Techniques in Reproductive Medicine—Exploring the Character of the Vitrified State Intra- and Extracellularly to Better Understand Cell Survival after Cryopreservation

1
NEXTCLINIC IVF Zentren Prof. Zech–Bregenz, 6900 Bregenz, Austria
2
Centre Hospitalier Inter Régional Edith Cavell (CHIREC), 1180 Bruxelles, Belgium
3
FARAH Research Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medecine, Liège University, 4000 Liège, Belgium
4
Iakentro Advanced Medical Centre, 54250 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Reprod. Med. 2020, 1(2), 142-157; https://doi.org/10.3390/reprodmed1020011
Received: 31 July 2020 / Revised: 28 August 2020 / Accepted: 15 September 2020 / Published: 17 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embryo Technologies Management)
Nowadays, cryopreservation of gametes and embryos is a fundamental, integral, and indispensable part of infertility treatment or fertility preservation. Cryopreservation is not only needed for the policy of single embryo transfer and cryopreservation of surplus embryos, but for deferring embryo transfer in the case of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, uterine pathologies, and suboptimal endometrium built-up or when preimplantation genetic testing is needed. Several current strategies in assisted reproduction technology (ART) would be inconceivable without highly efficient cryopreservation protocols. Nevertheless, cryopreservation hampered for a long time, especially in terms of low survival rates after freezing and thawing. Only the technical progress during the last decades, namely, in regard to the implementation and advancement of vitrification, leveraged its application, and thus, even allows the cryopreservation of human oocytes—a process that is far from being easy. This review aims to provide a deeper insight into the physical processes of cryopreservation and to explore the character of the vitrified state in the extra and intracellular milieu in order to demonstrate that the common denominator to all cryopreservation procedures is the establishment of an intracellular amorphous condition that hinders the likelihood of crystallization. View Full-Text
Keywords: cryopreservation; cryobiology; vitrification; slow freezing; assisted reproduction techniques (ART); embryo; gamete; macromolecular crowding; aqueous solidification; colloidal solidification cryopreservation; cryobiology; vitrification; slow freezing; assisted reproduction techniques (ART); embryo; gamete; macromolecular crowding; aqueous solidification; colloidal solidification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vanderzwalmen, P.; Ectors, F.; Panagiotidis, Y.; Schuff, M.; Murtinger, M.; Wirleitner, B. The Evolution of the Cryopreservation Techniques in Reproductive Medicine—Exploring the Character of the Vitrified State Intra- and Extracellularly to Better Understand Cell Survival after Cryopreservation. Reprod. Med. 2020, 1, 142-157. https://doi.org/10.3390/reprodmed1020011

AMA Style

Vanderzwalmen P, Ectors F, Panagiotidis Y, Schuff M, Murtinger M, Wirleitner B. The Evolution of the Cryopreservation Techniques in Reproductive Medicine—Exploring the Character of the Vitrified State Intra- and Extracellularly to Better Understand Cell Survival after Cryopreservation. Reproductive Medicine. 2020; 1(2):142-157. https://doi.org/10.3390/reprodmed1020011

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vanderzwalmen, Pierre; Ectors, Fabien; Panagiotidis, Yannis; Schuff, Maximilian; Murtinger, Maximilian; Wirleitner, Barbara. 2020. "The Evolution of the Cryopreservation Techniques in Reproductive Medicine—Exploring the Character of the Vitrified State Intra- and Extracellularly to Better Understand Cell Survival after Cryopreservation" Reprod. Med. 1, no. 2: 142-157. https://doi.org/10.3390/reprodmed1020011

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