This paper aims to explore the most important disruptive technologies in the development of the smart city. Every smart city is a dynamic and complex system that attracts an increasing number of people in search of the benefits of urbanisation. According to the United Nations, 68% of the world population will be living in cities by 2050. This creates challenges related to limited resources and infrastructure (energy, water, transportation system, etc.). To solve these problems, new and emerging technologies are created. Internet of Things, big data, blockchain, artificial intelligence, data analytics, and machine and cognitive learning are just a few examples. They generate changes in key sectors such as health, energy, transportation, education, public safety, etc. Based on a comprehensive literature review, we identified the main disruptive technologies in smart cities. Applications that integrate these technologies help cities to be smarter and offer better living conditions and easier access to products and services for residents. Disruptive technologies are generally considered key drivers in smart city progress. This paper presents these disruptive technologies, their applications in smart cities, the most important challenges and critics.
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