|Grid-Level Energy Management||•As the penetration of RES into the market is rising, the demand for controlling platforms to maintain power load stability and increase grid flexibility is increasing. Such solutions can introduce into the market novel services for grid support; |
•The lack of DERs for controllability and the integration of resources controlled by end-consumers contribute greatly to the need;
|Micro-grid controller platform||A grid level management platform that uses advanced distribution management and control strategies//Offers high level control authority allowing for optimal RES integration//Supports prosumers in grid operation//Allows the provisioning of flexibility and market services using RES forecasting, DERs, energy models and load estimation tools//Offers improved flexibility and controllability of energy resources//Interface that allows controlling existing assets of DSOs.|
|•The time variability of RES and electrification of energy demand increase the need for demand-side management (DSM) measures at different levels of power systems; |
•The need to modify energy consumption in real time can also be identified in other energy systems, e.g., peak demand reduction in district heating;
•Need to implement DSM measures while respecting users’ comfort needs and preferences.
|Flexibility Control Algorithms||Flexibility Control Algorithms that use the energy flexibility provided by different types of controllable devices//Bringing benefits for both consumers (e.g., lower energy costs) and power systems operators (e.g., lower peak loads)//Energy performance improvement at building and district level//Energy flexibility (e.g., appliances and batteries)//Self-consumption improvement//Satisfying the comfort needs and preferences of consumers.|
|•Opportunities of flexible energy management are great both for commercial and residential consumers. As RES and smart grids occupy larger shares of the market, such management is required in order to outperform centralized energy distribution and control. |
•The CEMS can introduce enhanced flexibility and controllability that will allow the further penetration of RES and smart grids into a city’s energy system.
|City Energy Management System (CEMS)||City Energy Management System used by power system operators to monitor, control, and manage energy while allowing end users to control smart devices, unlocking the opportunities of flexible energy//Ensures a smart global management through relevant manufacturers devices//Ease of use//Can determine power generation or power demands that minimize a certain objective such as power loss//The Energy Flexibility Interface (EFI) included in the CEMS provides additional aid on Smart Grid Management.|
|•Changes in the dynamics of power grids from centralized to distributed, moderating costs, and easy accessibility of energy storage are some of the factors driving the growth of the VPPs.|
•Total annual VPP vendor revenue will grow from $1.1B in 2014 to $5.3B in 2023 . VPPs influence multiple markets simultaneously due to their integrated character;
•Small units can get access to lucrative markets that they would not be able to enter individually. Small facilities, owned by SMEs or even households, have the ability to become prosumers .
|Virtual Power Plant (VPP)||VPP is a virtual power network that links decentralized units and operates as a single centralized control system where the power and flexibility of the aggregated assets can be traded collectively. Non-physical (hence virtual) aggregation of several heterogeneous Distributed Renewable Energy Resources (DRERs)//Cost-effective alternative to complement the power mismatch due to intermittent RE generation//Avoids expensive upgrades to the network infrastructure//Exploitation of the aggregated power mitigates the impact of electricity price fluctuations//Relieving the load on the grid by smartly distributing the power during peak load periods.|
|•Growing demand for electricity requires measures to control energy losses as well as to reduce the economic and ecological footprint of this transition. The market needs efficient and cleaner decentralized energy supply grids . |
•EMS, renewable systems, storage, and low carbon applications are changing the market landscape, potentially leading to a transition from an AC-dominated grid market to a DC one.
|DC grid||Direct Current Electricity Grid Infrastructure. Electronic Waste reduction//Lower losses and Higher Transmission Capacity for the facilitation of production, storage and distribution of solar electricity than traditional AC networks//Better connection with intelligent control technology and batteries for achieving energy efficiency and optimal zone distribution in buildings. |
|Sustainable Energy Storage Systems||•In the industrial/services and large consumers market, storage solutions provide with backup and uninterrupted energy supply services, as well as implementing intelligent energy management strategies such as peak shaving or ramp rate control. |
•For grid operators and utilities these solutions provide effective tools to manage and control power quality in the grid (MV).
|Low Voltage (LV) and Medium Voltage (MV) connected storage systems||Integrated Low-voltage and Medium-Voltage electric energy storage battery systems//Scalability of power and capacity//Ease of implementation and integration into existing electrical networks//Allowing to deal with increasing RES and their inherent variability//Multitude of offered services, i.e., peak-shaving, reactive power compensation, RE self-consumption maximization, power quality management and control etc.|
|•Batteries will play a crucial role in enabling the next phase of the transition towards renewables. As more and more households have adopted PV systems, battery system integration can provide self-sufficiency and reduce the monthly electricity bills. The economic benefit is thus the driving force of the technology in an expanding market.||Stationary batteries(Li-ion)||Innovative Lithium-ion Stationary Battery Systems//Increased storage capacity//Energy cost reduction//Contribution to advanced load balancing//On-demand-emergency discharging capabilities//Ensuring power availability and power quality within the building (e.g., during blackouts)//Improving comfort and prolonging the lifespan of indoor devices.|
|•It is critical to find solutions that can either substitute Li-ion batteries and/or extend their productive life; the EV battery supply market will undergo a major expansion over the coming years, which is also expected to affect material demand and increase price pressure .||2nd Life Residential Batteries||Modular and mobile (smaller) battery system that re-uses Li-Ion battery modules coming from EVs//Re-purposes Li-Ion battery modules (dealing with the upcoming wave of obsolete electric vehicle (EV) batteries)//Extends the productive life of EV battery modules//Affordable.|
|•With the proliferation of self-consumption generation, an efficient energy management leads to energy cost savings and more efficient use of energy (particularly in large facilities—stores where energy consumption is higher, thus its impact). |
•At periods where energy demand is higher than supply it is of extreme relevance that consumers can shift, curtail, or switch off energy demand.
|Freezing storage in store||Energy storage system from HVAC or industrial freezers in retail stores//Energy consumption reduction for stores//Energy cost reduction//Leveraging thermal inertia of the freezers//Providing demand side flexibility services to the grid//Complying to pre-established criteria of comfort and safety//Optimization of energy management based on daily consumption profile; intraday energy cost variation; and PV generation. |
|•There is a high need for replacing traditional fossil fuel-dependent heating and cooling systems with sustainable ones; |
•During recent years aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) has gained a lot of attention and the number of ATES is increasing, especially in Europe .
|Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage||An innovative system for heat/cold storage in the ground//Sustainable thermal storage solution that takes advantage of otherwise wasted heat streams to provide heating and cooling to the buildings in a cost-effective way (also reducing associated CO2 emissions)//Characterized by lower costs due to peak shavings and lower energy use.|
|Sustainable DHC Networks||•There is a growing need to help cities upgrade their DHC energy systems (in many cases being outdated), especially for coal regions in transition; |
•DHC systems can utilize waste, geothermal heat, and surplus heat which increase a region’s security of energy supply.
|DHC||Connection to the district heating (both at high and at low(er) temperatures) which distributes heat from a biomass energy plant, which runs on (municipal waste) wood, and in a later stage the district heating will be connected with geothermal energy sources//Outcomes and lessons learned from this process can provide valuable insights for the upgrade of DHC of other cities in EU.|
|•The need for a green-based economy not only propels the growth of the district heating market but also imposes market related needs such as energy efficiency and quick transition to RES. |
•Future initiatives towards better insulation and a growing insulation market favor the further penetration of such solutions into the market.
|Low temperature heat grid||Low Temperature (80/85) Heat Network. Cost-effective//Enhanced flexibility in the network design//Lower heat losses//Offering greater possibility for RES penetration into the heat grid (such as geothermal heat sources)// Separating the indoor installation from the heat network, which is safer in the event of leaks, lower water pressure in the home, limit-arrange return temperature.|
|•Global targets for climate change mitigation and decarbonization require higher RES penetration, reliability and energy efficiency of DHC systems.||Geothermal heat source||Geothermal Heating Distribution Network for Buildings. Low Environmental Impact//High Energy Efficiency//Reliable//Clean heat source with energy transfer from the earth//Typically require little maintenance. |
|•Various waste heating technologies are launched in the market to support smart city concept and eco-friendly development to sustain the environment.||Low temperature waste heat||Small-scale waste heat recovery network//Heating cost reduction//Waste heat recovery//Energy consumption reduction//Optimal heat distribution to customers. |
|•Configuration and maintenance of traditional heating installations is cumbersome, leading to malfunctioning, inefficiencies, and economic losses throughout their lifetime, routinely spanning several decades. With the introduction of 4th generation DHC Networks, the need for designing optimal controlling algorithms increases .|
•Delivering heat electrification requires dynamic, real-time demand-supply matching solutions where the interplay between heat and electricity is considered.
|Thermal grid controller||A thermal heat controlling software that saves operational costs//Cost reduction//Energy savings//Ease of planning and configuration process//Optimal balance between producers (supply) and consumers (demand) of heat and cold//Highly scalable, allowing systems of hundreds or thousands of producers and consumers to be controlled in an efficient way//Adaptable in the available buffer capacity and flexibility that different heating system components offer//Real-time matching solution for heating and cooling systems|
|•The Urban Heat Island effect results in increasing cooling and electricity energy needs, increased thermal stress, and heat-related public health issues, as well as human comfort and environmental implications .||Heat Island concept||Innovative Energy Management System for Heating|
Optimal energy distribution and management at building level//Increased heating efficiency//Energy savings//Algorithmic-based alignment of production and use of electricity between the several connected products.
|P2P energy trading||•Increased population of energy prosumers leads to P2P energy transactions needs;|
•Need for universal access to affordable, fairly priced, and abundant energy;
•Take control and responsibility for the self-provision of energy needs allowing the possibility to produce and sell own electricity creating investment opportunities, which can enhance energy equity.
|Peer to Peer Energy transactions||A digital fundraising and P2P energy transactions platform. Provides energy services for the end user and makes the renewable energy sources and energy storage more attractive to end users//Facilitates virtual energy communities for energy sharing (solar sharing—i.e., for cultural heritage communities where solar power at residential level may not be an option).|
|Hydrogen Technologies||•The demonstration of a complete hydrogen-based fuel cell system that can supplement the existing grid can facilitate larger-scale penetration of this technology to the existing energy market.|
•The hydrogen fuel cell vehicle market size is projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 66.9% from 2019 to 2026 . An increase in government initiatives for development of hydrogen fuel cell infrastructure is observed (e.g., Hydrogen Europe and H2KOREA ). Eminent recognition of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies in European energy policy (Clean Energy package 2016) is another positive parameter of hydrogen sector expansion .
|Fuel cells (hydrogen)||Hydrogen fuel cells are electrochemical power generators that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, with water and heat as by-products//Integration into local grids and hybrid heat systems provides means for increased energy efficiency//Energy storage with hydrogen fuel cells can lead to substantial cost reduction through peak shaving//Fuel cells do not need to be periodically recharged like batteries, but instead continue to produce electricity as long as a fuel source is provided//Clean, scalable, operate near-silently, and present improved efficiency, especially in combined heat and power (CHP) systems//Sustainable hydrogen can be utilized as a power fuel in heavy duty transport vehicles (HDV) and also to stabilize the grid, serving as storage for Power to Fuel concept.|