Sonochemistry is a significant contributor to green science as it includes: (i) the use of less toxic compounds and environmentally safe solvents, (ii) improvement of reaction conditions and selectivity, (iii) no toxic sludge generation, (iv) reduction in the energy use for chemical transformations, (v) reusability of materials. In water and wastewater treatment, ultrasound is used as an advanced oxidation process to eliminate refractory pollutants. Ultrasound is also used as a very effective sludge pretreatment technology in wastewater treatment plants to facilitate biogas production. Moreover, sonochemical synthesis of nanoparticles has recently attracted great attention as a greener protocol. This paper presents the main applications of ultrasound in environmental remediation and protection. The study also introduces mechanism for the degradation of pollutants from water via sonication in aqueous media and the principle factors affecting the cavitational effect.
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