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Clocks & Sleep, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 9 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Comparing the Effects of FIFO/DIDO Workers Being Home versus Away on Sleep and Loneliness for Partners of Australian Mining Workers
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(1), 86-98; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2010009 - 06 Mar 2020
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Fly in Fly out/Drive in Drive out (FIFO/DIDO) is a prevalent work arrangement in the Australian mining industry and has been associated with adverse outcomes such as psychological stress, sleep disturbances, fatigue, and work/life interference. FIFO/DIDO work arrangements have the potential to not [...] Read more.
Fly in Fly out/Drive in Drive out (FIFO/DIDO) is a prevalent work arrangement in the Australian mining industry and has been associated with adverse outcomes such as psychological stress, sleep disturbances, fatigue, and work/life interference. FIFO/DIDO work arrangements have the potential to not only impact the FIFO/DIDO worker, but also the partner of the FIFO/DIDO worker. However, there is sparse empirical evidence on the impact of FIFO/DIDO work arrangements on partners’ sleep and subsequent performance. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to describe and compare partners’ sleep quality, sleep duration, sleepiness, and loneliness when the FIFO/DIDO workers were at home (off-shift) and away (on-shift). A secondary aim of this study was to examine whether differences in partners’ sleep quality and sleep duration as a result of FIFO/DIDO worker’s absence could be partially explained through the presence of dependents in the home, relationship duration, chronotype, duration in a FIFO/DIDO role, and loneliness. Self-reported questionnaires were completed by 195 female and 4 male participants, mostly aged between 18 and 44 years and who had been in a relationship with a FIFO/DIDO mining worker for more than five years. Of note, most participants subjectively reported poor sleep quality, insufficient sleep duration, excessive sleepiness, and moderate to extreme loneliness compared to the general population regardless of whether the FIFO/DIDO workers were at home or away. Compared to when the FIFO/DIDO workers were at home, partners experienced reduced sleep quality and increased loneliness when the FIFO/DIDO workers were away. Secondary analyses revealed that loneliness may partially underpin the negative effect that FIFO/DIDO workers’ absence has on sleep quality. Further research is needed to understand the factors that contribute to poor sleep quality, insufficient sleep duration, excessive sleepiness, and loneliness of FIFO/DIDO partners to inform appropriate strategies to support FIFO/DIDO partners’ health and wellbeing not only in the mining population, but other industries that incorporate similar FIFO/DIDO work arrangements (e.g., emergency services, offshore drilling, and transport). Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Featured Papers from Australasian Chronobiology Society)
Open AccessOpinion
The Role of Daylight for Humans: Gaps in Current Knowledge
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(1), 61-85; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2010008 - 28 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Daylight stems solely from direct, scattered and reflected sunlight, and undergoes dynamic changes in irradiance and spectral power composition due to latitude, time of day, time of year and the nature of the physical environment (reflections, buildings and vegetation). Humans and their ancestors [...] Read more.
Daylight stems solely from direct, scattered and reflected sunlight, and undergoes dynamic changes in irradiance and spectral power composition due to latitude, time of day, time of year and the nature of the physical environment (reflections, buildings and vegetation). Humans and their ancestors evolved under these natural day/night cycles over millions of years. Electric light, a relatively recent invention, interacts and competes with the natural light–dark cycle to impact human biology. What are the consequences of living in industrialised urban areas with much less daylight and more use of electric light, throughout the day (and at night), on general health and quality of life? In this workshop report, we have classified key gaps of knowledge in daylight research into three main groups: (I) uncertainty as to daylight quantity and quality needed for “optimal” physiological and psychological functioning, (II) lack of consensus on practical measurement and assessment methods and tools for monitoring real (day) light exposure across multiple time scales, and (III) insufficient integration and exchange of daylight knowledge bases from different disciplines. Crucial short and long-term objectives to fill these gaps are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep and Zeitgebers (Light))
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Open AccessArticle
Lucid Dreaming and the Feeling of Being Refreshed in the Morning: A Diary Study
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(1), 54-60; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2010007 - 12 Feb 2020
Viewed by 602
Abstract
REM periods with lucid dreaming show increased brain activation, especially in the prefrontal cortex, compared to REM periods without lucid dreaming and, thus, the question of whether lucid dreaming interferes with the recovery function of sleep arises. Cross-sectional studies found a negative relationship [...] Read more.
REM periods with lucid dreaming show increased brain activation, especially in the prefrontal cortex, compared to REM periods without lucid dreaming and, thus, the question of whether lucid dreaming interferes with the recovery function of sleep arises. Cross-sectional studies found a negative relationship between sleep quality and lucid dreaming frequency, but this relationship was explained by nightmare frequency. The present study included 149 participants keeping a dream diary for five weeks though the course of a lucid dream induction study. The results clearly indicate that there is no negative effect of having a lucid dream on the feeling of being refreshed in the morning compared to nights with the recall of a non-lucid dream; on the contrary, the feeling of being refreshed was higher after a night with a lucid dream. Future studies should be carried out to elicit tiredness and sleepiness during the day using objective and subjective measurement methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep and Society)
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Clocks & Sleep in 2019
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(1), 52-53; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2010006 - 04 Feb 2020
Viewed by 427
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Australian Firefighters’ On-Call Work Arrangements on the Sleep of Partners
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(1), 39-51; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2010005 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 464
Abstract
On-call work arrangements are commonly utilised in the emergency services sector and are consistency associated with inadequate sleep. Despite sleep being a common shared behaviour, studies are yet to assess the impact of on-call work on the sleep of co-sleeping partners. This study [...] Read more.
On-call work arrangements are commonly utilised in the emergency services sector and are consistency associated with inadequate sleep. Despite sleep being a common shared behaviour, studies are yet to assess the impact of on-call work on the sleep of co-sleeping partners. This study aimed to investigate whether frequent 24/7 on-call work impacted the sleep and relationship happiness of firefighters’ partners. Two key research questions were investigated: (1) Does the frequency of calls impact sleep and relationship happiness? and, (2) Does the (a) sleep quantity and (b) sleep quality of partners impact perceived relationship happiness? A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire completed by partners of on-call workers (n = 66; 93% female). The questionnaire included items on (i) sleep quantity and quality, (ii) on-call sleep disturbances and, (iii) relationship happiness. Responses were analysed using logistic regression models. Higher overnight call frequency was associated with greater self-reported levels of inadequate sleep (<7 h per night; p = 0.024). Support for continuance of a firefighter’s role was less likely if the partner reported they regularly had trouble falling asleep within 30 min (p < 0.001). There were no other significant relationships between the frequency of calls or other sleep quantity or quality variables and relationship happiness. This study provides important first insights into how firefighters’ on-call work arrangements impact partners’ sleep. Future research is needed across periods of high and low call demand, using objective measures of sleep to further define the impacts of on-call work on partners’ sleep. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Featured Papers from Australasian Chronobiology Society)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Role of DEC1 in Cervical Cancer Cells Involving Overexpression and Apoptosis
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(1), 26-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2010004 - 26 Jan 2020
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) transcription factors differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene 1 (DEC1) and gene 2 (DEC2) regulate circadian rhythms, apoptosis, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasions and metastases in various kinds of cancer. The stem cell markers SOX2 and c-MYC are involved in the regulation [...] Read more.
Basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) transcription factors differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene 1 (DEC1) and gene 2 (DEC2) regulate circadian rhythms, apoptosis, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasions and metastases in various kinds of cancer. The stem cell markers SOX2 and c-MYC are involved in the regulation of apoptosis and poor prognosis. In cervical cancer, however, their roles are not well elucidated yet. To determine the function of these genes in human cervical cancer, we examined the expression of DEC1, DEC2, SOX2 and c-MYC in human cervical cancer tissues. In immunohistochemistry, they were strongly expressed in cancer cells compared with in non-cancerous cells. Notably, the strong rate of DEC1 and SOX2 expressions were over 80% among 20 cases. We further examined the roles of DEC1 and DEC2 in apoptosis. Human cervical cancer HeLa and SiHa cells were treated with cisplatin—HeLa cells were sensitive to apoptosis, but SiHa cells were resistant. DEC1 expression decreased in the cisplatin-treated HeLa cells, but had little effect on SiHa cells. Combination treatment of DEC1 overexpression and cisplatin inhibited apoptosis and affected SOX2 and c-MYC expressions in HeLa cells. Meanwhile, DEC2 overexpression had little effect on apoptosis and on SOX2 and c-MYC expressions. We conclude that DEC1 has anti-apoptotic effects and regulates SOX2 and c-MYC expressions on apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crosstalk between Circadian Rhythm and Diseases)
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Open AccessPerspective
Perspective: Daylight Saving Time—An Advocacy for a Balanced View and against Fanning Fear
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(1), 19-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2010003 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 659
Abstract
As experts, scientists must inform the public and political actors about relevant topics by providing a well-balanced analysis and overview of existing as well as missing scientific evidence. Particularly in cases where evidence is not solid, they must remain objective and not fan [...] Read more.
As experts, scientists must inform the public and political actors about relevant topics by providing a well-balanced analysis and overview of existing as well as missing scientific evidence. Particularly in cases where evidence is not solid, they must remain objective and not fan fear. Maintaining good scientific practice can be challenging, especially when a debate is emotionally charged and simple answers for complex issues are demanded. Recently, this was the case with the debate about (perennial) standard time vs. daylight saving time. In this publication, we address the common misconceptions and pitfalls for good scientific practice that accompany this discussion and deduce suggestions for future directions, which may help resolve them. Beyond this, we argue that it is not wise to simply “explain away” the public opinion or preference and we therefore recommend strategies that could support a discourse aiming at getting the public “on board”. Finally, we suggest that, in societies where the light environment is becoming increasingly complex, it may be time to reconsider the prevailing current relationships between solar and social clocks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sleep Problems in School Aged Children: A Common Process across Internalising and Externalising Behaviours?
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(1), 7-18; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2010002 - 20 Dec 2019
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Sleep problems are common in childhood and impact cognitive, psychological and physical wellbeing. The current study investigated the association between sleep problems and internalising and externalising behaviour in 114 school-aged children (5–12 years) from four primary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Data were collected [...] Read more.
Sleep problems are common in childhood and impact cognitive, psychological and physical wellbeing. The current study investigated the association between sleep problems and internalising and externalising behaviour in 114 school-aged children (5–12 years) from four primary schools in Melbourne, Australia. Data were collected using the Sleep Disorder Inventory for Students to measure sleep and the Conners Behavior Rating Scale to assess behaviour, both by parent report. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for socioeconomic status and age, identified moderate associations between sleep problems and emotional distress, aggressive behaviour and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Findings suggest screening for sleep problems in children presenting clinically with behavioural issues is a potentially important clinical practice. Additionally, results support the elaboration of transdiagnostic theory, whereby sleep problems are a common process in both internalising and externalising behaviour in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Featured Papers from Australasian Chronobiology Society)
Open AccessCommunication
A Cross-Sectional Study of the Associations between Chronotype, Social Jetlag and Subjective Sleep Quality in Healthy Adults
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(1), 1-6; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2010001 - 18 Dec 2019
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Social jetlag, a mismatch between internal biological time and social schedules, and a later timing of the midpoint of sleep on work-free days as an indicator of the circadian phase of entrainment (late chronotype), may be factors associated with poor quality sleep. This [...] Read more.
Social jetlag, a mismatch between internal biological time and social schedules, and a later timing of the midpoint of sleep on work-free days as an indicator of the circadian phase of entrainment (late chronotype), may be factors associated with poor quality sleep. This study examined the association of social jetlag and chronotype with subjective sleep quality ratings in a healthy young adult cohort and interrogated the moderating effects of sex and age on these associations. A total of 1322 participants aged 18 to 40 completed the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. Later timing of midsleep on “free” days (an indicator of chronotype) had a small-to-medium association with poorer subjective sleep quality, independently of sex and age (rho = 0.212, P < 0.001). Greater social jetlag had a small association with poorer subjective sleep quality ratings (rho = 0.077), and this effect was moderated by sex with there being a relationship between social jetlag and sleep quality only in males. Social jetlag did not mediate the relationship between chronotype and sleep quality. These results indicate differential relationships of the chronotype and social jetlag with subjective sleep quality and indicate that sex is a moderating factor for sleep quality’s relationship with social jetlag, but not for the association between sleep quality and chronotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep and Society)
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