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Geochemical-Microscopical Characterization of the Deterioration of Stone Surfaces in the Cloister of Santa Maria in Vado (Ferrara, Italy)

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Department of Chemistry, Pharmaceutical and Agricultural Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 46, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
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ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development Fusion and Technology for Nuclear Safety and Security Department Nuclear Safety, Security and Sustainability Division, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna, Italy
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Department of Life Science and Biotechnologies, University of Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 46, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
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Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dmitry A. Ruban
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 2996-3008; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040167
Received: 6 September 2021 / Revised: 27 September 2021 / Accepted: 28 September 2021 / Published: 1 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Geoheritage and Geo-Conservation)
Santa Maria in Vado is a monument in the rich artistic heritage of the city of Ferrara (north of Italy). In this paper we want to investigate the state of conservation of tombstones, cloister and the entrance to the basilica, in order to keep them in the best possible state for the future generations. From the chemical characterization, the state of conservation was determined focusing on the biodeteriogenic and non-biodeteriogenic factors, which determine a series of unwanted changes in the physical, mechanical and above all aesthetic properties of the material, often closely connected with the environment and conservation conditions. On the macroscopic observation, the state of conservation of the tombstones appeared to be very deteriorated through aesthetic and structural damage. In detail, the stereo microscope observation of samples collected from the tombstones show the presence of efflorescence probably caused by the abundant of water that bring the salts present inside the rock into solution. Relating the columns, μ-XRF analysis confirm the carbonate composition of samples and presence of iron and sulfur. Finally, SEM observation highlighted the presence of black crust on arch samples and the presence of pollen on the black crust and spheroidal particles probably related to atmospheric pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: stone; chemical analysis; morphological description; Ferrara (north eastern Italy) stone; chemical analysis; morphological description; Ferrara (north eastern Italy)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marrocchino, E.; Telloli, C.; Leis, M.; Vaccaro, C. Geochemical-Microscopical Characterization of the Deterioration of Stone Surfaces in the Cloister of Santa Maria in Vado (Ferrara, Italy). Heritage 2021, 4, 2996-3008. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040167

AMA Style

Marrocchino E, Telloli C, Leis M, Vaccaro C. Geochemical-Microscopical Characterization of the Deterioration of Stone Surfaces in the Cloister of Santa Maria in Vado (Ferrara, Italy). Heritage. 2021; 4(4):2996-3008. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040167

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marrocchino, Elena, Chiara Telloli, Marilena Leis, and Carmela Vaccaro. 2021. "Geochemical-Microscopical Characterization of the Deterioration of Stone Surfaces in the Cloister of Santa Maria in Vado (Ferrara, Italy)" Heritage 4, no. 4: 2996-3008. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040167

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