- Form the basis of a shared discourse on how Indigenous community-owned fire management could be supported and strengthened, and;
- Lead to concrete actions towards integrating Indigenous fire knowledge into fire management policies.
2. Environmental and Historical Background of Fire Management in the Central Guiana Shield Region
3. Materials and Methods
- Explore context and connections;
- Formulate systems of interest;
- Identify feasible and desirable changes;
- Take action.
- Express openly their own ideas, keeping respectful attitudes to other´s opinions, as well as an open disposition to learn from this process;
- Appreciate and value the contributions from all different stakeholders and Indigenous representatives;
- Identify key issues of common interest to them;
- Think about inclusive solutions where all stakeholders and Indigenous peoples could be included in all the stages of the process;
- Identify and propose possible local actions to ensure an intercultural and participative fire management plan based on the rescue of Indigenous knowledge;
- Negotiate a common path to deal with increasing risks and costs of wildfire occurrence in Indigenous territories.
4.1. The Importance of Fire in Everyday Indigenous Life and Culture
“We make a conuco there, when we see that it is going to be [exhausted] we make a conuco farther away, 1 km or 3 km further, and we leave [the previous] to rest for a while and we move the conuco like a wheel. And when we get to this point [indicates with a gesture the starting point], about 5, 6, 7 or more years have passed, and this conuco is recovered to a new forest. This was the work of us Pemón people…”.Head of the Elder’s Council, Pemón Arekuna Indigenous community leader of Kavanayén for over 20 years, and former firefighter of CORPOELEC, Gran Sabana, Venezuela
“We also use fire to burn our savannas to get fresh grass, but we don´t chose to do it like that, we do that what you call patches of savannas, burn this piece, burn that piece and burn that piece, right? … so, you could see here we don’t have specific firebreaks but our minds our traditional life said that we have to prevent fire”.Makushi Indigenous leader of the North Rupununi District Development Board (NRDDB), Guyana
4.2. Institutional Perspectives and Approaches to Fire Management in Indigenous Territories
4.2.1. Firefighting Institutions
“We must enhance working together with communities, keeping a fluid communication. [We must also…] prepare communities in fire handling and control techniques and participate with them in their burning activities. It is important as well not to obstruct their activities; for instance, when they are burning for hunting purposes, we shouldn´t combat that fire, since prey might escape and that would create a conflict. This happens when there is no proper communication”.Pemón Indigenous Park Ranger of the CNP, INPARQUES, Venezuela
“...We had the determination of ‘zero fire’, that fire must always be fought; however, we came to the conclusion that ‘zero fire’ is impossible, we have to learn to live together, learn to manage it, so that the positive side of fire can be used…”.Firefighter from IBAMA/PREVFOGO, Brazil
“the absence of solid scientific foundation”.Researcher from Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC)
“[These projects]…have provided the ecological basis of traditional Indigenous fire management and materialize the inclusion and integration of Indigenous knowledge and practices in the decision-making process and an intercultural governance. They must continue to be supported”.Professor at Universidad Central of Venezuela and Rector of Universidad Indígena del Tauca, Venezuela
4.3. Concerns about Fire Management in Indigenous Lands
“Fire is man´s friend, but wildfire is his enemy”.Captain of the Kavanayén Pemón Indigenous community
4.3.1. Lack of Indigenous Knowledge and Practices Transmission
“When we followed the tradition of our ancestors, the Indigenous lived peacefully without bothering anyone, but now we are seeing many consequences of having formed a [permanent] community, of having integrated our children to the studies of the school...We are seeing that our children lost all our culture, now everything is with the computer; instead of studying, they are looking for cartoons there and in the TV; that’s not study…”.Head of the Elder’s Council, Pemón Arekuna Indigenous community leader of Kavanayén for over 20 years, and former firefighter of CORPOELEC, Gran Sabana, Venezuela
“…Each one takes care of his own farm for example, and if the fire is out of control, there is not a large team to help him, thus increasing the chances of the burn entering adjacent forest”.Makushi Indigenous leader of the North Rupununi District Development Board (NRDDB), Guyana
“…We had an Indigenous calendar for burnings. Now each person does his own thing and makes fire alone without a plan or knowledge…”.Makushi Indigenous leader, Conselho Indigena de Roraima (CIR), Comunidade da Maturuca, Terra Raposa Serra do Sol, Roraima, Brazil
4.3.2. Climate Change Effects on Wildfire Behavior and Regimes
“Climate change has affected fire behavior. When the grandparents lit fire in the conuco they knew that after the drought came rain. But not now; the seasons have changed. Thinking that it is going to be like the old days, the Indigenous people of nowadays light a fire and a certain time goes by without raining. It is sad to see large burned areas without being able to sow”.Pemón Indigenous teacher of Escuela Técnica Agropecuaria de Kavanayén (ETAK), Gran Sabana, Venezuela
“…We must still continue fighting this type of fire to protect the most vulnerable forest and those fires Indigenous people cannot control”.Mayor Miguel Matany, First Commander of the INPARQUES Forest firefighters, Venezuela
4.3.4. Exclusion of fire Indigenous Practices: ‘Zero Fire’ Policy Implementation
“The Gran Sabana has been [here since] ancestral times, since it was created by the Almighty, and it has been a National Park since 1971 or 1972...and it was decreed without the knowledge of the Indigenous people, without telling the Indigenous people…When the National Park was decreed...a director from INPARQUES came to Kavanayén and told me, since I was the captain: ‘Look, sir, this is a National Park; you can no longer cut a stick, you can’t make a conuco, you can’t burn at the head of the rivers...because this is a Park, otherwise you will be penalized.’ I told him…‘It seems to me that now we’re not bothering the government, we’re not asking the government for daily bread. Here we are living in our environment, without bothering anyone, we have our conuco, and we know when we are going to do it”...We don’t want that arrogance, we don’t want them to come and tell us: ‘Look, whatever the institution says, whatever the legal part says, this is it, you’re going to do this’ No! …[We ask:] who is the one who pollutes the most in…the planet? [It’s] the big industries, which are permanently, all year round, smoking and smoking. And where [in this case] are the scientists, where are the environmentalists, where are the institutions, where are they? [Instead,] we are all here fighting right now for a smoke, because [some Indigenous people] burned a savanna...”.Head of the Elder’s Council, Pemón Arekuna Indigenous community leader of Kavanayén for over 20 years, and former firefighter of CORPOELEC, Gran Sabana, Venezuela
“This is not the INPARQUES of the 1970s; this is a very different INPARQUES, which is besides you [referring to Indigenous communities]…We start from the principle that it shouldn’t have been like that and we don’t want it to continue to be that way [referring to past un-consulted decision-making from public institutions]. [Now,] you have an INPARQUES with whom to propose things [in a different way] from the one used in the 1970s…As firefighters, we responsibly assume that the problem is not in the fire, the fire is a basic element for the life of the human being...The problem is not the fire; the problem is not the conuco either, the problem is when the conuco of two or three hectares is burned and the fire comes out of the conuco and burns a thousand hectares of the forest,”.Mayor Miguel Matany, First Commander of the INPARQUES Forest-firefighers, Venezuela
“What is happening in this workshop is a historical fact. After many long efforts…to demonstrate the ecological and cultural value of our traditional fire knowledge, we were able to advance [our cause] through new rules of the game for the three actors living in the Gran Sabana in Canaima National Park [Indigenous communities, government institutions, and scientists] with respect to fire management...We must all work equitably, in common wealth for the good of our society”.Secretary of the Kavanayén captaincy and teacher of Kavanayén Technical Highschool (ETAK), former technician of Parupa Scientific Station, Gran Sabana, Venezuela
4.3.5. Lack of appropriate acknowledgement and hoarding of indigenous knowledge by Some Academics
4.4. New Approaches to an Intercultural and Participative Fire Governance
“We identify, as the technical body of our organization, that we need better training to approach Indigenous communities, to know how to introduce ourselves into communities with the necessary respect so that it does not interfere in decisions, so that it does not interfere in the structure of communities, so that it does not cause divisions, and instead, it becomes an element of fusion and congregation. So, we see the need to have better training for our technical staff of our organization through participatory methodologies where it adds value to that reality”.Firefighter, IBAMA/PREVFOGO
“…To embrace Indigenous ancestral knowledge of fire, scholar knowledge, and the technical capacities of institutions in the construction of a new fire management plan in the Pemón Indigenous territory. Based on the ancestral knowledge of fire management, we are going to unite all types of knowledge in order to generate a new fire management model for the region…”.Pemón Taurepang Indigenous firefighter from CORPOELEC
“We want a dialogue between institutions and communities in order to validate traditional knowledge and achieve fire management. Scientists could help us to validate that knowledge. Dialogue is going to help accomplish the goal of proper fire management”.Pemón Arekuna Indigenous representative from Kavanayén, Gran Sabana
“…We don’t come to tell you not to burn; we come to burn with you, to participate with you in the burning so that it doesn’t turn into a wildfire. For us, fire is one thing and wildfire is another thing, and you will never hear us anymore to say “no” to burn, what we don’t want is more wildfires in the forests that give life to you and everyone else...”.Mayor Miguel Matany, First Commander of the INPARQUES Forest-firefighters, Venezuela
“Let us all unite, institutions and Indigenous communities with our knowledge. We are ancestral firefighters, we know how to handle fire, and how to walk the roads, so that we burn. It is time for us all to unite: institutions, Indigenous people, and scientists to look for the solution we are talking about. We are willing to collaborate with the institutions, and the institutions are willing to collaborate with us; but let’s do it without restrictions, because the institutions are arrogant many times. You can’t do that, since in the life of the Indigenous that [arrogance] never existed, and we don’t want that. What we want is to be united in the work, to find the solution”.
- The process of facilitation by academics requires proactive responses and some “out of the box thinking” to overcome tension and antagonism proper of any intercultural building process. A respectful attitude towards different cosmovisions can open up opportunities to identify convergent points and overcome historical disagreements among different stakeholders in order to find adaptive, sustainable, inclusive, and socially just solution to common challenges.
- The need to face a new challenge of adapting to the adverse conditions generated by climate change can be a key point of convergence since all stakeholders and Indigenous representatives recognized its socio-ecological disruptive impact on Indigenous and protected territories. The visualization of a common objective and benefits for all parties contributed to formulate alliances and joint actions of cooperation among all actors within and amid all countries.
- Building up long-term relationships with Indigenous communities, is an indispensable requirement to achieve mutual trust and convening power for joint actions, as well as the establishment of lasting agreements. This involves a paradigm shift in governance policies in state agencies and research centers that usually work with specific and practical projects’ objectives, aimed to achieve short-term results.
- In addition to the integration of Indigenous, scientific, and technical knowledge, a legitimate and sustainable management of fire in territories inhabited by Indigenous peoples must guarantee the active and equitable participation and joint learning of all actors, safeguarding their culture and allowing the implementation of their traditional Indigenous practices. In other words, fire management must be participatory and intercultural and must be developed within a framework of social justice, respecting the sovereignty and cultural integrity of Indigenous peoples. It is not enough to recognize the existence of multiple cultures (multiculturality), instead different powers of public dimensions should guarantee equitable conditions of participation in the dialogue between these cultures (interculturality).
- The challenge of interculturality is that different stakeholders manage to coordinate their actions instead of promoting isolated initiatives, so that reciprocal tendencies equilibrate and balance each other, creating a common space of coexistence, that is an “intercultural interface” of institutions working on environmental management and governance. Without the promotion of these conditions, which also aims at the construction of inclusive identities, the power imbalances and the domination of the hegemonic culture over the minority ones will still prevail.
- Respect Indigenous knowledge and practices relating to the use of fire.
- Promote the empowerment of Indigenous communities and their active participation in decision-making, and allow communities more autonomy with respect to policies, including the leading of projects (or initiatives) for fire management.
- Encourage institutions to support national and international level funding for Indigenous fire management, for example to reduce deforestation and limit carbon emissions.
- Promote the use of visual modes of communication for raising awareness and reinforcing traditional fire practices.
Conflicts of Interest
|INDIGENOUS GROUPS||PARTICIPATING ORGANIZATIONS|
|Arekuna, Taurepang and Kamarakoto Pemón people 1||(1) Council of Elders, Pemón Indigenous Community, Santa Teresita de Kavanayén, Gran Sabana, Canaima National Park, Venezuela.|
(2) Captaincy of Santa Teresita de Kavanayén, Gran Sabana, Canaima National Park, Venezuela.
(3) Agricultural Technical School (ETAK), Pemón Arekuna Indigenous Community, Santa Teresita de Kavanayén, Gran Sabana, Venezuela.
|Ye´kuana people 2||(4) National Indigenous Experimental University of Tauca (UNEIT), Venezuela.|
|Macuxi people 3||(5) Conselho Indígena de Roraima (CIR), Comunidade Maturuca, Etnoregião Serras, Terra Indigena Raposa Serra do Sol, Roraima, Brazil.|
(6) Conselho Indigena de Roraima (CIR), Comunidade Normandia, Etnoregião Raposa, Terra Indigena Raposa Serra do Sol, Roraima, Brazil.
|(7) North Rupununi District Development Board (NRDDB), Guyana.|
|Wapishana people 4||(8) South Central Peoples Development Association (SCPDA), Guyana|
|(9) Conselho Indigena de Roraima CIR, Comunidade e Terra Indigena Malacacheta, Etnoregião Serra da Lua, Roraima, Brazil.|
(10) Conselho Indigena de Roraima (CIR), Comunidade Lage, Etnoregião Serras da Lua, Cantá, Roraima, Brazil.
|Xingu people 5||(11) Institute Raoni (IR), Brazil.|
|INSTITUTIONS’ TYPES||PARTICIPATING INSTITUTIONS|
|Firefighters’ Institutions||(12) Bomberos Forestales del Intituto Nacional de Parques. Ministerio del Poder Popular para el Ecosocialismo y Aguas, Venezuela. *|
(13) Programa de Control de Incendios, Corporación Eléctrica Nacional S.A. (CORPOELEC), Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Energía Eléctrica, Venezuela.
(14) Brigada de Bomberos Forestales “Ataque Inicial Carlos Todd”, Corporación Eléctrica Nacional S.A. (CORPOELEC), Ministro del Poder Popular para la Energía Eléctrica, Venezuela.
(15) Prevfogo, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA), Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brazil.
|Park Administration||(16) Dirección General, Intituto Nacional de Parques. Ministerio del Poder Popular para el Ecosocialismo y Aguas, Venezuela.|
|Pro-Indigenous Institutions||(17) Fundação Nacional do Índio (FUNAI), Brazil.|
|INSTITUTIONS’ TYPES||PARTICIPATING INSTITUTIONS|
|Universities||(18) Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB), Venezuela. *|
(19) Royal Holloway University of London (RHUL), United Kingdom. *
(20) The Open University (OU), United Kingdom. *
(21) Instituto de Geografía y Desarrollo Regional. Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Venezuela.
(22) Instituto de Biología Experimental, Universidad Central de Venezuela.
(23) Universidad Bolivariana de Venezuela (UBV).
(24) United Nations University Traditional Knowledge Initiative (UNU), Japan.
|Research Institutes||(25) Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Venezuela.|
(26) Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Brazil.
|Scientific Stations||(27) Scientific Station Parupa, Corporación Venezolana de Guayana (CVG), Venezuela. *|
- Bowman, D. Wildfire science is at a loss for comprehensive data. Nature 2018, 560, 7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Chuvieco, E.; Lizundia-Loiola, J.; Pettinari, M.; Ramo, R.; Padilla, M.; Tansey, K.; Mouillot, F.; Laurent, P.; Storm, T.; Heil, A.; et al. Generation and analysis of a new global burned area product based on MODIS 250 reflectance bands and thermal anomalies. Earth Syst. Sci. Data 2018, 10, 2015–2031. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tollefson, J. Enormous wildfires spark scramble to improve fire models. Nature 2018, 561, 16–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Mistry, J.; Berardi, A.; Andrade, V.; Leonardos, O. Indigenous fire management in the Cerrado of Brazil: The case of the Krahô of Tocantıns. Hum. Ecol. 2005, 33, 365–386. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bilbao, B.A.; Leal, A.V.; Méndez, C.L. Indigenous Use of Fire and Forest Loss in Canaima National Park, Venezuela. Assessment of and Tools for Alternative Strategies of Fire Management in Pemón Indigenous Lands. Hum. Ecol. 2010, 38, 663–673. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rodríguez, I.; La Rose, A.P.; Sharpe, C.J. A study of the use of fire by Amerindian communities in South Rupununi, Guyana, with recommendations for sustainable land management. In Study Prepared for the South Central and South Rupununi District Toshaos Councils; South Central Peoples Development Association (SCPDA), Forest Peoples Programme: Norwich, UK, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Huffman, M.R. The many elements of traditional fire knowledge: Synthesis, classification, and aids to cross-cultural problem solving in fire dependent systems around the world. Ecol. Soc. 2013, 18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Welch, J.R. Xavante Ritual Hunting: Anthropogenic Fire, Reciprocity, and Collective Landscape Management in the Brazilian Cerrado. Hum. Ecol. 2014, 42, 47–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Eloy, L.; Schmidt, I.B.; Borges, S.L.; Ferreira, M.C.; dos Santos, A.T. Seasonal fire management by traditional cattle ranchers prevents the spread of wildfire in the Brazilian Cerrado. Ambio 2018, 48, 890–899. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Russell-Smith, J.; Monagle, C.; Jacobsohn, M.; Beatty, R.; Bilbao, B.A.; Millán, A.; Vessuri, H.; Sánchez-Rose, I. Can savanna burning projects deliver measurable greenhouse emissions reductions and sustainable livelihood opportunities in fire-prone settings? Clim. Chang. 2013, 140, 47–61. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Trauernicht, C.; Brook, B.W.; Murphy, B.P.; Williamson, G.J.; Bowman, D.M.J.S. Local and global pyrogeographic evidence that Indigenous fire management creates pyrodiversity. Ecol. Evol. 2015, 5, 1908–1918. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Roos, C.I.; Scott, A.C.; Belcher, C.M.; Chaloner, W.G.; Aylen, J.; Bliege Bird, R.; Coughlan, M.R.; Johnson, B.R.; Johnston, F.H.; McMorrow, J.; et al. Living on a flammable planet: Interdisciplinary, cross-scalar and varied cultural lessons, prospects and challenges. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 2016, 371, 20150469. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Dezzeo, N.; Chacón, N. Carbon and nutrients lose in aboveground biomass along a fire induced forest—Savanna gradient in the Gran Sabana, southern Venezuela. For. Ecol. Manag. 2005, 209, 343–352. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Laris, P.; Wardell, D.A. Good, bad or ‘necessary evil’? Reinterpreting the colonial burning experiments in the savanna landscapes of West Africa. Geogr. J. 2006, 172, 271–290. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rull, V.; Montoya, E.; Vegas-Vilarr!ubia, T.; Ballersteros, T. New insights on palaeofires and savannisation in northern South America. Quat. Sci. Rev. 2015, 122, 158–165. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barradas, A.C.S. A gestão do fogo na Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins, Brasil (Fire management at the Serra Geral of Tocantins Ecological Station, Brazil); Escola Nacional de Botânica/Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2017. (in Portuguese)
- Pereira, A.C.J.; Oliveira, S.L.J.; Pereira, J.M.C.; Turkman, M.A.A. Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected Area. PLoS ONE 2014, 9, e102380. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Fidelis, A.; Alvarado, S.; Barradas, A.; Pivello, V. The Year 2017: Megafires and Management in the Cerrado. Fire 2018, 1, 49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bilbao, B.; Leal, A.; Méndez, C.; Delgado-Cartay, M.D. The role of fire on vegetation dynamics of upland savannas of the Venezuelan Guayana. In Tropical Fire Ecology: Climate Change, Land Use and Ecosystem Dynamics; Cochrane, M.A., Ed.; Springer: Heidelberg, Germany, 2009; pp. 451–480. [Google Scholar]
- McDaniel, J.; Kennard, D.; Fuentes, A. Smokey the Tapir: Traditional Fire Knowledge and Fire Prevention Campaigns in Lowland Bolivia. Soc. Nat. Resour. 2005, 18, 921–931. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sorrensen, C. Potential hazards of land policy: Conservation, rural development and fire use in the Brazilian Amazon. Land Use Policy 2009, 26, 782–791. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Carmenta, R.; Vermeylen, S.; Parry, L.; Barlow, J. Shifting Cultivation and Fire Policy: Insights from the Brazilian Amazon. Hum. Ecol. 2013, 41, 603–614. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO). Global Fire Challenges in a Warming World; Robinne, F.-N., Burns, J., Kant, P., de Groot, B., Flannigan, M.D., Kleine, M., Wotton, D.M., Eds.; Occasional Paper 2018; IUFRO: Vienna, Austria, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Mistry, J.; Berardi, A. Bridging Indigenous and scientific knowledge. Science 2016, 352, 1274–1275. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bilbao, B.; Leal, A.; Pedraza, E.; Rosales, J.; Martın, S.; Millan, A.; Salazar-Gascón, R.; Chani, H. Chureta ru to pomupok: Integration of Indigenous and ecological knowledge for the restoration of degraded environments. In Beyond Restoration Ecology: Social Perspectives in Latin America and the Caribbean; Ceccon, E., Pérez, D.R., Eds.; Vazquez Mazzini Editores: Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2017; pp. 331–353. [Google Scholar]
- Rodríguez, I.; Sletto, B.; Bilbao, B.; Sanchez-Rose, I.; Leal, A. Speaking of fire: Reflexive governance in landscapes of social change and shifting local identities. J. Environ. Policy Plan. 2013, 15, 689–703. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Eloy, L.; Bilbao, B.A.; Mistry, J.; Schmidt, I. From fire suppression to fire management: Advances and resistances to changes in fire policy in the savannas of Brazil and Venezuela. Geogr. J. 2018, 185, 10–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mistry, J.; Schmidt, I.B.; Eloy, L.; Bilbao, B.A. New perspectives in fire management in South American savannas: The importance of intercultural governance. Ambio 2018, 48, 172–179. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- David, A. Partnerships Forged in Fire: With Wildfires Becoming more Deadly Worldwide, Fire Management Agencies and Traditional Peoples are Combining Their Expertise to Reduce the Risk of Catastrophic Landscape Fires and Support Cultural Practices; Current Perspective Report; PRISMA Foundation: San Salvador, El Salvador, 2018; pp. 19–75. [Google Scholar]
- Cash, D.W.; Clark, W.C.; Alcock, F.; Dickson, N.M.; Eckley, N.; Guston, D.H.; Jäger, J.; Mitchell, R.B. Knowledge systems for sustainable development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2003, 100, 8086–8091. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Bohensky, E.L.; Maru, Y. Indigenous Knowledge, Science, and Resilience: What Have We Learned from a Decade of International Literature on “Integration”? Ecol. Soc. 2011, 16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hegger, D.; Lamers, M.; Van Zeijl-Rozema, A.; Dieperink, C. Conceptualising joint knowledge production in regional climate change adaptation projects: Success conditions and levers for action. Environ. Sci. Policy 2012, 18, 52–65. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bilbao, B.; Holländer, M.; Koim, N.; Longoli, S.P.; Schielmann, S.; Stöber, S. Discovering the Cultures of Resilience: Promoting the contributions of traditional livelihoods to climate change mitigation and adaptation and global sustainable development. In Briefing paper. In Proceedings of the Impacts World 2017 Conference, Potsdam, Germany, 11–13 October 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Nkoana, E.M.; Verbruggen, A.; Hugé, J. Climate Change Adaptation Tools at the Community Level: An Integrated Literature Review. Sustainability 2018, 10, 796. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ban, N.C.; Frid, A.; Reid, M.; Edgar, B.; Shaw, D.; Siwallace, P. Incorporate Indigenous perspectives for impactful research and effective management. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 2018, 2, 1680–1683. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Mistry, J.; Bilbao, B.A.; Berardi, A. Community owned solutions for fire management in tropical ecosystems: Case studies from Indigenous communities of South America. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 2016, 371. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Huber, O.; Zent, S. Indigenous people and vegetation in the Venezuelan Guayana: Some ecological consideration. Sci. Guaianae 1995, 5, 37–64. [Google Scholar]
- Halbmayer, E. Contemporary Caribspeaking Amerindians. A Bibliography of Social Anthropological and Linguistic Resources; Difo-Druck: Bavaria, Germany, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Steyermark, J.; Berry, P.; Holts, B.; Yatskievych, K. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, Volume 1: Introduction; Missouri Botanical Garden Press: St. Louis, MO, USA, 1995; ISBN 9780915279739. [Google Scholar]
- Hernández, L. Ecología de la Altiplanicie de la Gran Sabana (Guayana Venezolana). In Estructura, Diversidad, Crecimiento y Adaptación en Bosques de las Subcuencas de los Ríos Yuruan| y Alto Kukenán (Ecology of the High Plateau of the Gran Sabana (Venezuelan Guyana). In Structure, Diversity, Growth and Adaptation in Forests of the Sub-basins of the Yuruaní and Upper Kukenán Rivers). Scientia Guayanae 1999, 9, 5–34. (in Spanish). [Google Scholar]
- Huber, O.; Febres, G. Guía Ecológica de la Gran Sabana; The Nature Conservancy: Caracas, Venezuela, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Pires, J.M.; Prance, G.T. The vetation types of the Brazilian Amazon. In Key Environments Amazonia; Prance, G.T., Lovejoy, T.E., Eds.; Pergamon Press: Oxford, UK, 1985; pp. 109–145. [Google Scholar]
- Fundacao do Meio Ambiente e Tecnologia de Roraima. O Hemisferio Norte: Diagnostico Científico e Tecnológico para o Desenvolvimento (The Northern Hemisphere: Scientific and Technological Development Diagnostics); Fundacao do Meio Ambiente e Tecnologia de Roraima: Boa Vista, Cape Verde, 1994. (in Portuguese)
- Barbosa, R.I. Distribuição das chuvas em Roraima (Rainfall distribution in Roraima). In Homem, Ambiente e Ecologia em Roraima (Man, Environment and Ecology in Roraima); Barbosa, R.I., Ferreira, E., Castellon, E.G., Eds.; Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA): Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, 1997; pp. 325–335. (in Portuguese) [Google Scholar]
- Hawkes, M.D.; Wall, J.R.D. The Commonwealth and Government of Guyana Rain Forest Programme, Phase I, Site Resource Survey, Main Report; Natural Resources Institute: Chatham, UK, 1993. [Google Scholar]
- Persaud, C. Mean Annual and Monthly Rainfall Maps of Guyana; Caribbean Meteorological Institute: Barbados, Caribbean, 1994. [Google Scholar]
- Barbosa, R.I.; Fearnside, F.M. Fire frequency and area burned in the Roraima savannas of Brazilian Amazonia. For. Ecol. Manag. 2005, 204, 371–384. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hardesty, J.; Myers, R.L.; Fulks, W. Fire, ecosystems, and people: A preliminary assessment of fire as a global conservation issue. Georg. Wright Forum 2005, 22, 78–87. [Google Scholar]
- Bilbao, B.A.; Leal, A.; Mendez, C.; Osío, A.; Hasmy, Z. Significado ecológico de las sabanas y zonas de transición sabana—Bosque en el mosaico de vegetación de la Gran Sabana, Parque Nacional Canaima. En Experiencias de Restauración Ecológica en Venezuela en las Últimas Décadas (Ecological significance of the savannas and savanna-forest transition zones in the vegetation mosaic of the Gran Sabana, Canaima National Park. In Experiences of Ecological Restoration in Venezuela in the Last Decades); Herrera, F., Herrera, I.Y., Eds.; Editores IVIC: Caracas, Venezuela, 2011; ISBN 1122-8060. (in Spanish) [Google Scholar]
- Pivello, V.R. The use of fire in the cerrado and Amazonian rainforests of Brazil: Past and present. Fire Ecol. 2011, 7, 24–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Simon, M.F.; Grether, R.; Queiroz, L.P.; Skema, C.; Pennington, R.T.; Hughes, C.E. Recent assembly of the Cerrado, a neotropical plant diversity hotspot, by in situ evolution of adaptations to fire. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009, 106, 20359–20364. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Roosevelt, A.C. Amazonian anthropology: Strategy for a new synthesis. In Amazonian Indians from Prehistory to Present: Anthropological Perspective; Roosevelt, A.C., Ed.; University of Arizona Press: Tucson, AZ, USA, 1994; pp. 1–29. [Google Scholar]
- Welch, J.R.; Brondízio, E.S.; Hetrick, S.S.; Coimbra, C.E., Jr. Indigenous burning as conservation practice: Neotropical savanna recovery amid agribusiness deforestation in Central Brazil. PLoS ONE 2013, 8, e81226. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hernández, L.; Dezzeo, N.; Sanoja, E.; Salazar, L.; Castellanos, L. Changes in structure and composition of evergreen forests on an altitudinal gradient in the Venezuelan Guayana Shield. Rev. Biol. Trop. 2012, 60, 11–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Leonel, M.M. O uso do fogo: O manejo indígena e a piromania da monoculture (The use of fire: Indigenous management and pyromania of monoculture). Estudos Avançados 2002, 14, 231–250. (in Portuguese). [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nevle, R.J.; Bird, D.K. Effects of syn-pandemic fire reduction and reforestation in the tropical Americas on atmospheric CO2 during European conquest. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeocol. 2008, 264, 25–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Moura, L.C.; Scariotb, A.O.; Schmidta, I.B.; Beatty, R.; Russell-Smith, J. The legacy of colonial fire management policies on traditional livelihoods and ecological sustainability in savannas: Impacts, consequences, new directions. J. Environ. Manag. 2019, 232, 600–606. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schmidt, I.B.; Moura, L.C.; Ferreira, M.C.; Eloy, L.; Sampaio, A.B.; Dias, P.A.; Berlinck, C.N. Fire management in the Brazilian Savanna: First steps and the way forward. J. Appl. Ecol. 2018, 55, 2094–2101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ratter, J.A.; Bridgewater, S.; Ribeiro, J.F. Biodiversity patterns of woody cerrado vegetation: An overall view. Ann. Bot. 1997, 80, 223–230. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cochrane, M. Fire, land use, land cover dynamics, and climate change in the Brazilian Amazon. In Tropical Fire Ecology: Climate Change, Land Use and Ecosystem Dynamics; Cochrane, M., Ed.; Springer: Heidelberg, Germany, 2009; pp. 389–426. [Google Scholar]
- Aragão, L.E.O.C.; Shimabukuro, Y.E. The incidence of fire in Amazonian forests with implications for REDD. Science 2010, 328, 1275–1278. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Vieira, R.S.; Pressey, R.L.; Loyola, R. The residual nature of protected areas in Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 2019, 232, 152–161. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Durigan, G.; Ratter, J.A. The need for a consistent fire policy for Cerrado conservation. J. Appl. Ecol. 2016, 53, 11–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ley Penal del Ambiente, República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Gaceta Oficial No. 39.913 (Official Gazette No. 39,913); Mayo Clinic: Caracas, Venezuela, 2012. (in Spanish) [Google Scholar]
- Guyana Forestry Commission (GFC). An Overview of Forest Fire Management in Guyanas. In Proceedings of the Second Regional Seminar on Forest Fires in The Amazon Region; Sao Paulo, Brazil, 17–21 October 2016, Inpe-São José dos Campos: Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Gaceta Oficial Extraordinaria No. 5.453 (Official Gazette Extraordinary No. 5.453); Servicio Autónomo Imprenta Nacional: Caracas, Venezuela, 2000. (in Spanish)
- Bevilacqua, M.; Medina, D.A.; Cárdenas, L. Manejo de recursos naturales en el parque nacional Canaima: Desafíos institucionales para su conservación. (Natural Resource Management in Canaima National Park: Institutional Challenges for Conservation.) In Biodiversidad del Parque Nacional Canaima (Biodiversity of Canaima National Park); Fundación La Salle: Caracas, Venezuela, 2009; pp. 157–169. (in Spanish) [Google Scholar]
- Sletto, B. Indigenous people don’t have boundaries: Reborderings, fire management, and productions of authenticities in Indigenous landscapes. Cult. Geogr. 2009, 16, 253–277. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rodriguez, I.; Sletto, B.; Bilbao, B.; Leal, A. landscapes. In STEPS Working Paper 54; STEPS Centre: Brighton, UK, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Howitt, R.; Doohan, K.; Suchet-Pearson, S.; Cross, S.; Lawrence, K.; Lunkapis, G.J.; Muller, S.; Prout, S.; Veland, S. Intercultural capacity deficits: Contested geographies of coexistence in natural resource management. Asia Pac. Viewp. 2013, 54, 126–140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Checkland, P. Systems Thinking, Systems Practice; Wiley: Chichester, UK, 1981. [Google Scholar]
- Ison, R.; Blackmore, C.; Collins, K.; Furniss, P. Systemic environmental decision making: Designing learning systems. Kybernetes 2007, 36, 1340–1361. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Checkland, P. La Metodología de Sistemas Blandos. In Análisis Racional Reestudiado Para un Mundo Problemático (The Soft Systems Methodology. In: Rational Analysis Restudied For a Problematic World); Rosenhead, J., Mingers, J., Eds.; Instituto Venezolano de Planificación: Caracas, Venezuela, 2004; pp. 69–101. ISBN 980-6793-16-1. (in Spanish) [Google Scholar]
- Bell, S.; Berg, T.; Morse, S. Rich Pictures: Encouraging a Resilient Community; Routledge: London, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Couprie, D.; Goodbrand, A.; Li, B.; Zhu, D. Soft Systems Methodology. Available online: http://sern.ucalgary.ca/courses/seng/613/F97/grp4/ssmfinal.html#TOP (accessed on 30 May 2019).
- Millán, A.; Bilbao, B.; Yerena, E. Intercultural Fire Management as a Tool for the Conservation of Canaima National Park, Venezuelan Guyana (in Spanish: Manejo intercultural del fuego como herramienta para la conservación del Parque Nacional Canaima, Guayana Venezolana). In Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Biodiversity of the Guiana Shield, Paramaribo, Suriname, 5–8 August 2013. [Google Scholar]
- García, S.; Bilbao, B.; Taller, I. Aunando perspectivas para la creación de una política para la creación de una política ambiental legítima y efectiva del manejo del fuego en el Parque Nacional Canaima (Uniting perspectives for creating a legitimate and effective environmental fire management policy in Canaima National Park). In Proceedings of the 7th Congreso Venezolano de Ecología, La Sociedad es parte del Ecosistema, Ciudad Guayana, 5–9 November 2007; Señaris, J.C., Rojas, H., Lew, D., Eds.; Sociedad Venezolana de Ecología: Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela, 2007; pp. 144–154. (In Spanish). [Google Scholar]
- Gómez, E.; Picón, G.; Bilbao, B. Los incendios forestales en Iberoamérica. Caso Venezuela. In The Defense Against Forest Fires. Fundamentals and Experience); Vélez-Muñoz, R., Ed.; McGraw-Hill: Madrid, España, 2000; pp. 22.3–22.42. (In Spanish) [Google Scholar]
- EDELCA. La Cuenca del Caroní. Una Visión en Cifras (The Caroní Basin. A Vision in Numbers); CVG-EDELCA: Puerto Ordaz, Venezuela, 2008; p. 263. (in Spanish) [Google Scholar]
- Falleiro, R.M. Resgate do manejo tradicional do Cerrado com fogo para proteção das Terras Indígenas do oeste do Mato Grosso: Um estudo de caso (Rescue of the traditional management of the Cerrado with fire to protect the Indigenous Lands of western Mato Grosso: A case study). Biodiversidade Brasileira 2011, 30, 86–96. (in Portuguese). [Google Scholar]
- Reyes-García, V.; Broesch, J.; Calvet-Mir, L.; Fuentes-Peláez, N.; McDade, T.W.; Parsa, S.; Tannerg, S.; Huancah, T.; Leonarde, W.R.; Martínez-Rodríguez, M.R. Cultural transmission of ethnobotanical knowledge and skills: An empirical analysis from an Amerindian society. Evol. Hum. Behav. 2009, 30, 274–285. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shishkava, D. Culture Change in the Pemón Society. Risks and Changes for an Indigenous Group in Venezuela. Master’s Thesis, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Kingsbury, N.D. Impacts of land use and cultural change in a fragile environment: Indigenous acculturation and deforestation in Kavanayen, Gran Sabana, Venezuela. Interciencia 2001, 26, 327–336. [Google Scholar]
- Atran, S.; Sperber, D. “Learning without teaching: Its place in culture.” In Annual Workshop on Culture, Schooling and Psychological Development, 4th, Jun, 1987, Tel Aviv U, Ramat Aviv, Israel; Ablex Publishing: New York, NY, USA, 1991. [Google Scholar]
- Berkes, F.; Colding, J.; Berkens, C.F. Rediscovery of traditional knowledge as adaptive management. Ecol. Appl. 2000, 10, 1251–1262. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Klubnikin, K.; Annett, C.; Cherkasova, M.; Shishin, M.; Fotieva, I. The sacred and the scientific: Traditional ecological knowledge in Siberian river conservation. Ecol. Appl. 2000, 10, 1296–1306. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Davis, M. Bridging the gap or crossing a bridge? Indigenous knowledge and the language of law and policy. In Bridging Scales and Knowledge Systems: Concepts and Applications in Ecosystem Assessment; Reid, W.V., Berkes, F., Wilbanks, T.J., Capistrano, D., Eds.; Island Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2006; pp. 145–163. [Google Scholar]
- Berry, J.W. Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. J. Appl. Psychol. 1997, 46, 5–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- ISA. Povos Indigenas do Brasil, Macuxi. Available online: https://pib.socioambiental.org/pt/Povo:Macuxi (accessed on 10 January 2019).
- Keenleyside, K.A.; Dudley, N.; Cairns, S.; Hall, C.M.; Stolton, S. Restauración Ecológica Para Áreas Protegidas: Principios, Directrices y Buenas Practices (Ecological Restoration for Protected Areas: Principles, Guidelines and Good Practices); UICN: Gland, Switzerland, 2014; ISBN 978-2-8317-1678-7. (in Spanish) [Google Scholar]
- Ceccon, E. Restauración en Bosques Tropicales: Fundamentos Ecológicos, Prácticos y Sociales (Tropical Forest Restoration: Ecological, Practical and Social Fundamentals), 1st ed.; CRIM/UNAM-Díaz de Santos: Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, 2013. (in Spanish) [Google Scholar]
- Petty, A.M.; deKoninck, V.; Orlove, B. Cleaning, protecting, or abating? Making Indigenous fire management ‘‘work’’ in northern Australia. J. Ethnobiol. 2015, 35, 140–162. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fache, E.; Moizo, B. Do burning practices contribute to caring for country? Contemporary uses of fire for conservation purposes in Indigenous Australia. J. Ethnobiol. 2015, 35, 163–182. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Perry, J.J.; Sinclair, M.; Wikmunea, H.; Wolmby, S.; Martin, D.; Martin, B. The divergence of traditional Aboriginal and contemporary fire management practices on Wik traditional lands, Cape York Peninsula, Northern Australia. Ecol. Manag. Restor. 2018, 19, 24–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Goldman, M.; Nadasdy, P.; Turner, M.D. Knowing Nature: Conversation at the Intersection of Political Ecology and Science Studies; Goldman, M., Nadasdy, P., Turner, M.D., Eds.; The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Kettle, N.P.; Dow, K.; Tuler, S.; Webler, T.; Whitehead, J.; Miller, K.M. Integrating scientific and local knowledge to inform risk-based management approaches for climate adaptation. Clim. Risk Manag. 2014, 4–5, 17–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Millán, A. Bases Para la Creación de un Plan de Manejo Integral del Fuego en el Parque Nacional Canaima (Bases for the Creation of an Integrated Fire Management Plan in Canaima National Park); Universidad Simón Bolívar: Caracas, Venezuela, 2015. (in Spanish) [Google Scholar]
- Nadasdy, P. The politics of TEK: Power and the “integration” of knowledge. Arct. Anthropol. 1999, 36, 1–18. [Google Scholar]
- Moorcroft, H.; Ignjic, E.; Cowell, S.; Goonack, J.; Mangolomara, S.; Oobagooma, J.; Karadada, R.; Williams, D.; Waina, N. Conservation planning in a cross-cultural context: The Wunambal Gaambera Healthy Country Project in the Kimberley, Western Australia. Ecol. Manag. Restor. 2012, 13, 16–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- North Rupununi District Development Board. Available online: http://nrddb.org/about North Rupununi (accessed on 18 January 2019).
- United Nations Development Programme. Instituto Raoni, Brazil; Equator Initiative Case Study Series; Equator Initiative: New York, NY, USA, 2018. [Google Scholar]
An Indigenous fermented liquor made from the grated root of the manioc.
Participative action research projects funded by the National Science-Financing Institution (FONACIT), and supported by national and regional governmental development institutions (CVG, CORPOELEC-EDELCA, and INPARQUES): IAB (Interactions Atmosphere, Biosphere of the “Gran Sabana”), RISK (Risk Factors in the Reduction of Habitats in Canaima National Park: Vulnerability and Tools for Sustainable Development), and APOK (Fire in Pemón Indigenous language, Ecological and Traditional Knowledge Bases of Fire of Pemón People: Local Solutions for Global Climate Change Problems).
Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps.
Details of specific plans and actions of each country can be seen in the first report: http://projectcobra.org/participatory-and-intercultural-fire-management-network/
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).