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Open AccessArticle

Pre-Columbian Fire Management Linked to Refractory Black Carbon Emissions in the Amazon

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Division of Hydrologic Sciences, Desert Research Institution, Reno, NV 89512, USA
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Department of Geography and Geology, University of the West Indies Mona, Kingston, Jamaica
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Department of Ecosystem and Landscape Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4
Department of Archaeology, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QE, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land-Use and Fire around the World from the Past to the Present)
Anthropogenic climate change—combined with increased human-caused ignitions—is leading to increased wildfire frequency, carbon dioxide emissions, and refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosol emissions. This is particularly evident in the Amazon rainforest, where fire activity has been complicated by the synchronicity of natural and anthropogenic drivers of ecological change, coupled with spatial and temporal heterogeneity in past and present land use. One approach to elucidating these factors is through long-term regional fire histories. Using a novel method for rBC determinations, we measured an approximately 3500-year sediment core record from Lake Caranã in the eastern Amazon for rBC influx, a proxy of biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. Through comparisons with previously published records from Lake Caranã and regional evidence, we distinguished between local and regional rBC emission sources demonstrating increased local emissions of rBC from ~1250 to 500 calendar years before present (cal yr BP), coinciding with increased local-scale fire management during the apex of pre-Columbian activity. This was followed by a regional decline in biomass burning coincident with European contact, pre-Columbian population decline, and regional fire suppression associated with the rubber boom (1850–1910 CE), supporting the minimal influence of climate on regional burning at this time. During the past century, rBC influx has rapidly increased. Our results can serve to validate rBC modeling results, aiding with future predictions of rBC emissions and associated impacts to the climate system. View Full-Text
Keywords: black carbon; macrocharcoal; eastern Amazon; pre-Columbian; fire activity black carbon; macrocharcoal; eastern Amazon; pre-Columbian; fire activity
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Arienzo, M.M.; Maezumi, S.Y.; Chellman, N.J.; Iriarte, J. Pre-Columbian Fire Management Linked to Refractory Black Carbon Emissions in the Amazon. Fire 2019, 2, 31.

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