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Article

Teleoperation of Highly Automated Vehicles in Public Transport: User-Centered Design of a Human-Machine Interface for Remote-Operation and Its Expert Usability Evaluation

German Aerospace Center (DLR), 38108 Braunschweig, Germany
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Academic Editors: Shadan Sadeghian Borojeni and Philipp Wintersberger
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2021, 5(5), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5050026
Received: 13 February 2021 / Revised: 28 March 2021 / Accepted: 3 May 2021 / Published: 5 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interface and Experience Design for Future Mobility)
Paving the way to future mobility, teleoperation of vehicles promises a reachable solution to effectively use the benefits of automated driving as long as fully automated vehicles (SAE 5) are not entirely feasible. Safety and reliability are assured by a human operator who remotely observes the vehicle and takes over control in cases of disturbances that exceed the vehicle automation’s skills. In order to integrate the vehicle’s automation and human remote-operation, we developed a novel user-centered human-machine interface (HMI) for teleoperation. It is tailored to the remote-operation of a highly automated shuttle (SAE 4) by a public transport control center and based on a systematic analysis of scenarios, of which detailed requirements were derived. Subsequently, a paper-pencil prototype was generated and refined until a click-dummy emerged. This click-dummy was evaluated by twelve control center professionals. The experts were presented the prototype in regular mode and were then asked to solve three scenarios with disturbances in the system. Using structured interview and questionnaire methodology, the prototype was evaluated regarding its usability, situation awareness, acceptance, and perceived workload. Results support our HMI design for teleoperation of a highly automated shuttle, especially regarding usability, acceptance, and workload. Participant ratings and comments indicated particularly high satisfaction with the interaction design to resolve disturbances and the presentation of camera images. Participants’ feedbacks provide valuable information for a refined HMI design as well as for further research. View Full-Text
Keywords: human-machine interaction; interface for remote-control; teleoperation; automated driving; usability evaluation; expert evaluation; situational awareness; workload; user acceptance human-machine interaction; interface for remote-control; teleoperation; automated driving; usability evaluation; expert evaluation; situational awareness; workload; user acceptance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kettwich, C.; Schrank, A.; Oehl, M. Teleoperation of Highly Automated Vehicles in Public Transport: User-Centered Design of a Human-Machine Interface for Remote-Operation and Its Expert Usability Evaluation. Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2021, 5, 26. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5050026

AMA Style

Kettwich C, Schrank A, Oehl M. Teleoperation of Highly Automated Vehicles in Public Transport: User-Centered Design of a Human-Machine Interface for Remote-Operation and Its Expert Usability Evaluation. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. 2021; 5(5):26. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5050026

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kettwich, Carmen, Andreas Schrank, and Michael Oehl. 2021. "Teleoperation of Highly Automated Vehicles in Public Transport: User-Centered Design of a Human-Machine Interface for Remote-Operation and Its Expert Usability Evaluation" Multimodal Technologies and Interaction 5, no. 5: 26. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5050026

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