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Article

Exposure of Malaysian Children to Air Pollutants over the School Day

1
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan
3
School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jason Corburn, Saroj Jayasinghe and Franz W. Gatzweiler
Urban Sci. 2022, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci6010004
Received: 3 December 2021 / Revised: 30 December 2021 / Accepted: 12 January 2022 / Published: 18 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy City Science: Citizens, Experts and Urban Governance)
Children are sensitive to air pollution and spend long hours in and around their schools, so the school day has an important impact on their overall exposure. This study of Kuala Lumpur, Selangor and its surroundings assesses exposure to PM2.5 and NO2, from travel, play and study over a typical school day. Most Malaysian children in urban areas are driven to school, so they probably experience peak NO2 concentrations in the drop-off and pick-up zones. Cyclists are likely to receive the greatest school travel exposure during their commute, but typically, the largest cumulative exposure occurs in classrooms through the long school day. Indoor concentrations tend to be high, as classrooms are well ventilated with ambient air. Exposure to PM2.5 is relatively evenly spread across Selangor, but NO2 exposure tends to be higher in areas with a high population density and heavy traffic. Despite this, ambient PM2.5 may be more critical and exceed guidelines as it is a particular problem during periods of widespread biomass burning. A thoughtful adjustment to school approach roads, design of playgrounds and building layout and maintenance may help minimise exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: NO2; PM2.5; Kuala Lumpur; classrooms; school playgrounds; urban roads; travel to school; drop-off and pick-up zones NO2; PM2.5; Kuala Lumpur; classrooms; school playgrounds; urban roads; travel to school; drop-off and pick-up zones
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ezani, E.; Brimblecombe, P. Exposure of Malaysian Children to Air Pollutants over the School Day. Urban Sci. 2022, 6, 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci6010004

AMA Style

Ezani E, Brimblecombe P. Exposure of Malaysian Children to Air Pollutants over the School Day. Urban Science. 2022; 6(1):4. https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci6010004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ezani, Eliani, and Peter Brimblecombe. 2022. "Exposure of Malaysian Children to Air Pollutants over the School Day" Urban Science 6, no. 1: 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci6010004

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