Next Article in Journal
Social Resistances and the Creation of Another Way of Thinking in the Peripheral “Self-Constructed Popular Neighborhoods”: Examples from Mexico, Argentina, and Bolivia
Next Article in Special Issue
Land-Cover Change Analysis and Simulation in Conakry (Guinea), Using Hybrid Cellular-Automata and Markov Model
Previous Article in Journal
Urban Chickens as a Pathway for Human Illness: An Examination of Knowledge, Behavior and Risk
Open AccessArticle

Intra-Urban Microclimate Effects on Phenology

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Colorado Mesa University, 1100 North Ave, Grand Junction, CO 81501, USA
Department of Geography, College of Natural Resources and Environment, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Urban Sci. 2018, 2(1), 26;
Received: 1 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Landscape Degradation and Restoration)
PDF [5466 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]


The urban heat island effect is commonly defined as the thermal differences between cooler rural and warmer urban areas, but it also refers to microclimatic differences within an urban area that arises from varied combinations of land cover related to different land uses. Microclimatic variations should also produce intra-urban differences in vegetation phenophases, although few studies have investigated urban phenology. Most phenological studies are usually regional to continental in scale, predominantly tracking changes in start of season related to climate change. This study reports results of an exploratory analysis using TIMESAT (Lund University, Lund, Sweden) software and MODIS NDVI 250-m resolution data (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA) to identify intra-urban differences in start of season for the City of Roanoke, Virginia. We compare these results to our in-situ temperature collection campaign. Additionally, we completed an in-situ start of season data collection by observing select tree species. Our results demonstrate that MODIS, processed by TIMESAT software, identified intra-urban start of season variations, and these variations are consistent with differing intra-urban microclimates and our in-situ start of season observations. Furthermore, results from such analyses can aid plans for increasing the urban tree canopy or in cultivating locations for urban agriculture—i.e., warmer areas with a longer growing season could accommodate warmer weather trees and crops. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban heat island; urban phenology; TIMESAT; MODIS; urban agriculture urban heat island; urban phenology; TIMESAT; MODIS; urban agriculture

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Parece, T.E.; Campbell, J.B. Intra-Urban Microclimate Effects on Phenology. Urban Sci. 2018, 2, 26.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Urban Sci. EISSN 2413-8851 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top