Next Article in Journal
U.S. Metropolitan Spatial Structure Evolution: Investigating Spatial Patterns of Employment Growth from 2000 to 2010
Next Article in Special Issue
Modeling Exposure to Heat Stress with a Simple Urban Model
Previous Article in Journal
The Classification of Urban Uses
Open AccessArticle

Associations of Noise and Socioeconomic and -Demographic Status on Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases on Borough Level in a Large German City State

1
Institute for Health Services Research in Dermatology and Nursing (IVDP), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
2
Institute of Geography, University of Hamburg, Bundesstraße 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
3
Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, Hamburg University Heart Center (UHZ), Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
4
German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, Oudenarder Straße 16, 13347 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Urban Sci. 2017, 1(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci1030027
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
Worldwide, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases are increasing. Environmental noise and the socioeconomic and sociodemographic situation are important factors for the diseases. Using borough health claims data from 2011 in the city of Hamburg, ecological analyses with principal component analyses were conducted to describe the relationship of road traffic noise Lden (day, evening, and night) > 65 dB(A), physician density, and social deprivation with regional prevalence rates of heart failure and hypertension (n = 67 boroughs). Additionally, associations between the considered factors with borough prevalence rates of acute bronchitis and asthma in children up to 14 years old were analyzed. The multivariate regression analyses (ANCOVA) indicated that the socioeconomic and sociodemographic borough background might be associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, showing the strongest association among hypertensive female patients with 9.90 percent (p < 0.0001) in the highest social deprivation category, when compared to the group of low social deprivation. However, associations between noise, physician density, and the respective health outcomes were negligible. Results will serve as a basis for further investigations. By using data from two surveys, future studies will focus on individual level data to assess the validity of our model, and to develop strategies to reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: socioeconomic; cardiovascular disease; respiratory disease; noise; urban area; spatial analysis socioeconomic; cardiovascular disease; respiratory disease; noise; urban area; spatial analysis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Krefis, A.C.; Albrecht, M.; Kis, A.; Jagodzinski, A.; Augustin, M.; Augustin, J. Associations of Noise and Socioeconomic and -Demographic Status on Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases on Borough Level in a Large German City State. Urban Sci. 2017, 1, 27.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop