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Copper-To-Zinc Ratio as an Inflammatory Marker in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
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Received: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 November 2020 / Published: 1 December 2020
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disorder and a major health challenge in Nigeria. Micronutrient deficiencies often associated with the disorder may cause inflammation and abnormal metabolism in the body. The copper-to-zinc ratio is a more relevant diagnostic measure than the concentration of either metal alone in clinical practice. This study seeks to evaluate serum levels of c-reactive protein (CRP), copper, zinc and the copper-to-zinc ratio, and to correlate the latter with CRP in adult subjects with SCD. Serum copper, zinc, CRP and plasma fibrinogen were assayed in 100 confirmed SCD patients in steady clinical state and 100 age- and sex-matched subjects with normal hemoglobin. Serum copper and zinc were assayed by the colorimetric method using reagents supplied by Centronic, Germany, while CRP and fibrinogen were assayed using reagents supplied by Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA) and Anogen (Ontario, Canada), respectively. The copper-to-zinc ratio was calculated from serum levels of copper and zinc. The measured parameters were compared between the groups using the Students t-test, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to relate CRP with the other parameters. Serum copper, CRP, fibrinogen and the copper-to-zinc ratio were significantly higher (p < 0.001), while zinc level was lower in SCD patients than in controls. Serum CRP concentration correlated with copper (r = 0.10; p < 0.02), zinc (r = −0.199; p < 0.05) and the copper-to-zinc ratio (r = 0.312; p < 0.002), but the correlation between CRP and fibrinogen was not significant. Inflammation may modulate copper and zinc homeostasis, and the copper-to-zinc ratio may be used as a marker of nutritional deficiency and inflammation in SCD patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper; c-reactive protein; inflammation; sickle cell disease; zinc copper; c-reactive protein; inflammation; sickle cell disease; zinc
MDPI and ACS Style

Emokpae, M.A.; Fatimehin, E.B. Copper-To-Zinc Ratio as an Inflammatory Marker in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease. Sci 2020, 2, 89. https://doi.org/10.3390/sci2040089

AMA Style

Emokpae MA, Fatimehin EB. Copper-To-Zinc Ratio as an Inflammatory Marker in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease. Sci. 2020; 2(4):89. https://doi.org/10.3390/sci2040089

Chicago/Turabian Style

Emokpae, Mathias A.; Fatimehin, Emmanuel B. 2020. "Copper-To-Zinc Ratio as an Inflammatory Marker in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease" Sci 2, no. 4: 89. https://doi.org/10.3390/sci2040089

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