A Unique Transdisciplinary Engineering-Based Integrated Approach for the Design of Temporary Refugee Housing Using Kano, HOQ/QFD, TRIZ, AD, ISM and DSM Tools
- Multidisciplinary engineering: researchers from a variety of disciplines work independently;
- Interdisciplinary engineering: researchers from a variety of disciplines work jointly on common problems by sharing methods or tools;
1.1. TD Tool
1.2. TD Tool Integration
1.2.1. Integration of QFD and TRIZ
1.2.2. Integration of QFD, TRIZ, and DEA
1.2.3. Integration of QFD and AD
1.2.4. Integration of QFD, AD, and TRIZ
1.2.5. Integration of AD, QFD, and TRIZ
1.2.6. Integration of QFD and TRIZ
1.2.7. Integration of TRIZ, DSM, and ISM
2.1. Design Considerations
- Clarification of a trigger question,
- Silent generation of ideas in writing by each group member,
- Round-robin recording of the ideas,
- An ongoing discussion of each idea for clarification and editing, and
- Voting to obtain a preliminary ranking of the ideas in terms of significance .
- Eliminating “aesthetically pleasing” as aesthetics was not a priority for temporary housing, nor was it a key factor in any of the designs previously discussed;
- Expanding the list of jointly regarded factors for the End User/Provider to include “Support Privacy” and “Be Extensible” in addition to modifications to original factors;
- Replacing “Be Easy to Transport and Store” with “Be Modular” as the latter is more general in nature and if successful would result in ease of transportation.
- Provide Comfortable Environment to Live In: Including climate control, space, ability to accommodate “furniture” or personal belongings.
- Support Safety and Security: Including safety from other individuals (theft, retribution), local animals/insects (e.g., mosquitos) as well as antiseptic properties of the unit itself.
- Support User Activity: Including activities such as entertaining guests, adolescent studying and young children playing. Basic functional needs are covered under the next item.
- Support Basic Functional Needs: Including seeping, cooking/eating, bathing, and general hygiene.
- Support Privacy: Including privacy for times without clothes, private conversations, dealing with personal matters (e.g., discipline), and personal affairs.
- Be Easy to Assemble and Disassemble: The assembly and the disassembly are assumed to be performed by the provider (not the refugee).
- Be Extensible:cIncluding the ability to “add-on” an extra room or to join units together to form larger units. A base unit assembly can accommodate 5 +/− 2 adults without extending the unit.
- Be Easy to Manufacture: Including both the amount of lead time for manufacturing, availability of building materials, and the stability/reliability of the contracts for manufacturers and supply chain.
- Use Sustainable Building Materials: Pertains to the type of material of the unit itself, including the weight. It includes consideration of the positive ECO impact for it to be recycled/reused once no longer in use as well as the avoidance of negative ECO impact to the environment around it while in use.
- Have Rigidity (Strength): Including the ability to withstand various weather conditions and extremes.
- Minimize Cost: Including all costs, including development, installation, and maintenance costs. It is related to the durability of the product (to reduce the replacement costs of units once they have reached end of life (EOL)).
- Be Modular: Including the ability to easily replace parts/pieces of the unit as this relates to each of the previous factors above. Being modular odular also refers to the ability to transport the modular components independently, making them more easily transported.
2.2. Kano Survey
2.3. Initial House of Quality (HOQ)/Quality Functional Deployment (QFD)
2.4. Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ)
2.4.1. Resolving Conflict 1
- Item #2: Weight of a Stationary Object;
- Item #14: Strength.
- Inventive Principle #1: There is a potential solution to divide the object into independent parts as this would help with modularity; however, the aggregate weight is not reduced, the weight of the housing unit is simply broken down into various parts and therefore is not the best option. This approach was not selected.
- Inventive Principle #26: This is not the best option as we cannot replace the material with an optical copy. We could consider a simplified product, but this would likely reduce the functionality or create a new negative technical contradiction with the mean time to restore. This approach was not selected.
- Inventive Principle #27: This is not a good option as cheap material will not last and will increase costs in the long run. This approach was not selected.
- Inventive Principle #40: This is the best option: we can select the material in such a way as to replace homogeneous materials with composite ones. Using this approach, the weight decreases as the strength increases. This selection will be carried to the second QFD/HOQ.
2.4.2. Resolving Conflict 2
2.5. Updated QFD/HOQ (HOQ2)
2.6. Integration of Reconstructed QFD and AD
- DP1: Structural Component: Includes climate control, space, and ability to accommodate “furniture” or personal belongings.
- DP2: Material Composition: Includes safety from other individuals (theft, retribution), local animals/insects (e.g., mosquitos), and antiseptic properties of the unit itself.
- DP3: Dimensions and Interior Design: Includes activities such as entertaining guests, adolescent studying, and young children playing. Basic functional needs are covered under the next parameter.
- DP4: Coherent Structure.
2.7. Integration of QFD and ISM
- V: Variable i affects variable j
- A: Variable j affects variable i
- X: Both variables, i and j, affect each other
- O: No relationship between variables i and j
2.8. ISM and DSM Integration
- E = the number of edges of the graph
- N = the number of nodes of the graph
- P = the number of connected components.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|CTQ||Critical to Quality|
|DOAJ||Directory of Open Access Journals|
|DSM||Design Structure Matrix|
|HOQ||House of Quality|
|ISM||Interpretive Structural Modeling|
|MDPI||Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute|
|QFD||Quality Function Deployment|
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|TRIZ Feature No.||TRIZ Feature Name||TRIZ Feature Description|
|2||Weight of Stationary Object||The mass of the stationary object in |
a gravitational force acts on it (weight).
The force that the stationary body exerts
on its support or suspension or on the
surface on which it rests.
|14||Strength||The extent to which the object is|
able to resist changing in response to
force. Resistance to breaking/failure.
The capacity of an object to withstand
a critical force or pressure before it fails
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Moran, D.; Ertas, A.; Gulbulak, U. A Unique Transdisciplinary Engineering-Based Integrated Approach for the Design of Temporary Refugee Housing Using Kano, HOQ/QFD, TRIZ, AD, ISM and DSM Tools. Designs 2021, 5, 31. https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5020031
Moran D, Ertas A, Gulbulak U. A Unique Transdisciplinary Engineering-Based Integrated Approach for the Design of Temporary Refugee Housing Using Kano, HOQ/QFD, TRIZ, AD, ISM and DSM Tools. Designs. 2021; 5(2):31. https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5020031Chicago/Turabian Style
Moran, Daniel, Atila Ertas, and Utku Gulbulak. 2021. "A Unique Transdisciplinary Engineering-Based Integrated Approach for the Design of Temporary Refugee Housing Using Kano, HOQ/QFD, TRIZ, AD, ISM and DSM Tools" Designs 5, no. 2: 31. https://doi.org/10.3390/designs5020031