- freely available
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030041
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
2.2. Eligibility Criteria
2.7. Search Strategy
2.8. Selection of Study Objects
2.9. Risk of Bias
2.10. Data Synthesis
3.1. Biological Measures
3.1.1. Creatine Kinase
3.1.2. Heart Rate
3.1.4. Blood glucose
3.1.5. Urine Measures
3.1.9. Sexual Hormone Binding Globulin
3.1.10. Leukocytes and Cytokines
3.1.11. C-reactive Protein
3.1.12. Plasma Amino Acids
3.1.13. Intracellular Signaling Proteins and Rates of Muscle Protein Synthesis
3.2. Physical Measures
3.2.3. Muscular Endurance
3.2.5. Rate of Perceived Exertion
3.3. Cognitive Function
Conflicts of Interest
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|Author [Ref] (Year)||n||Aim||Alcohol (dose)||Mix||Administration Time||Measures||Resistance Training||Comparator||Outcomes (Compared to Comparator)|
|Barnes et al.  (2010)||12||Evaluate if ALC interacts with damaged muscles.||1g/kg||37.5% ALC/volume; Smirnoff Vodka in orange juice (ratio 3.2:1)||A beverage was consumed every 15 min over a total time of 90 min.||-Strength.|
-Peak and averaged torque.
|300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one lower limb at an angular speed of 30°/s.||Cross-Over||No differences in acute performance measures. Decreased performance was seen after 36h following ingestion.|
|Barnes et al.  (2010)||11||To compare the effects of post-exercise ALC ingestion with that of an isocaloricnon-ALC beverage on changes in muscle performance.||1g/kg||37.5% ALC/volume; Smirnoff Vodka in orange juice (ratio 3.2:1).||A beverage was consumed every 15 min over a total time of 90 min.||-Soreness|
-Peak and averaged torque
|300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one lower limb at an angular speed of 30°/s.||Cross-Over||Peak concentric, eccentric were lower in the ALC group.|
No differences in CK and soreness
|Barnes et al.  (2012)||10||To investigate the effects of post-game ALC consumption|
on whole-body, sport-specific performance.
|1g/kg||37.5% ALC/volume; Smirnoff Vodka in orange juice (ratio 3.2:1).||A beverage was consumed every 15 min over a total time of 90 min.||-HR|
-Cortisol and Testosterone
|BURST Protocol (intense 20-m shuttle run with 180° turns)||Cross-Over||HR and Lactate showed no difference. RPE varied significantly.|
Differences in CMJ but not in HPO were present.
No differences in the leukocyte count. CK was higher in the ALC group only after 48h. Testosterone did not show any differences. Cortisol was higher in the ALC group after 36h.
|Clarkson et al.  (1990)||10||Assess the effect of acute ALC ingestion on muscle indicators.||0.8g/kg||Vodka 40% with orange juice (ratio 1:1)||Single dose.||-CK|
|50 repetitions at a lat-pulley.||Cross-Over.||No difference in CK.|
No difference in soreness.
No difference in strength.
|Haugvad et al.  (2014)||9||Investigate the effects of ethanol on recovery of muscle function after RT.||-Low dose 0.6 or 0.7 g/kg|
-High dose 1.2 or 1.4 g/kg
|40% ethanol/volume, Absolut vodka diluted with 200-mL sugar-free lemonade(raspberry flavour) and water to a total of 1.5 L||The beverage|
was consumed in about 90 min.
-Cortisol and Testosterone
|Squats, lower limb presses, and bilateral knee extensions were performed in 4 sets with a load of 8RM with 2 min rest.||Cross-Over||MVC was decreased after the ALC trial 12h training. MVC normalized in both groups after 24h. No difference in Jump performance; Cortisol was higher at 12 at 24h in the high dose group. Neither testosterone or SHBG were influenced by ALC. Free testosterone was lower in the high dose group at 12 and 24h. No differences in the CK for any group. No differences in leukocytes.|
|Levitt et al.  (2017)||13||The effect of acute ALC consumption on muscular recovery process.||1.09 g/kg||The ALC was diluted to 15% v/v in an artificially sweetened beverage.||The beverage volume was split into 10 equal|
portions; one portion was administered each minute over a 10min ingestion period.
-Isometric, concentric and eccentric torque
|300 maximal single-lower limb eccentric leg extensions.||Cross-Over||No difference in soreness.|
No difference in strength.
No difference in CK.
No difference in any cytokine.
|Levitt et al.  (2018)||10||To investigate the effect of ALC consumed after heavy eccentric|
resistance exercise on measures of muscle power.
|1.09 g/kg||Smirnoff 40% ALC Vodka diluted to 15% v/v in an artificially sweetened beverage.||The beverage was split into 10 equal portions and one portion consumed every 3 min during the 30-min beverage ingestion period.||-Soreness|
|4 sets of 10 repetitions at 110% of concentric 1RM; 3 min passive rest in between sets||Cross-Over||No differences were found in peak power nor peak force or jump height.|
No differences were found in soreness measures.
|McLeay et al.  (2017)||8||To investigate the effects of ALC consumption on recovery of muscle force.||0.88 g/kg||37.5% ALC/volume; Smirnoff Vodka in orange juice||Six drinks were consumed every 15 min over 1.5 hr.||-CK|
-Isometric, concentric and eccentric torque.
|300 maximal single-lower limb eccentric leg extensions through a 60° ROM at an angular speed of 30°/s.||Cross-Over||No difference in isometric, concentric and eccentric torque.|
No difference in CK.
No difference in muscle soreness.
|Murphy et al.  (2013)||9||To evaluate the effects of ALC ingestion on lower-body strength and power|
and physiological and cognitive recovery
|1g/kg||37.5% ALC/volume; Smirnoff Vodka in orange juice (ratio 3.2:1).||An equal volume of beverage was consumed every 20 min over a total time of 150 min||-RPE|
- Cortisol and Testosterone
|Rugby match||Cross-Over||No difference in RPE.|
No differences in CMJ and MVC.
No difference in CK and CRP.
No difference in testosterone.
Large effect size for cortisol increase after 16h in the ALC group.
Larger urine volume after night in the ALC group.
Decreased cognitive function was observed in the ALC group.
|Parr et al.  (2014)||8||Evaluate the effect of ALC intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis following strenuous exercise||-1.5g/kg with CHO|
-1.5g/kg with PRO
|Vodka and Orange juice (ratio 1:4)||6 equal volumes were consumed during a 3 h period.||-Biopsy|
-Plasma AA concentration
-Intracellular signalling proteins
|-8 × 5 at ,80% of 1RM|
-10 × 30 s high intensity intervals at 110% of PPO; 3 min rest between sets
|Cross-Over||Blood ALC was higher in the CHO compared to the PRO group after 6 and 8h after consumption. Blood Glucose was higher in the ALC-CHO group after 5h.AA (EEA and BCAA) were lower in the ALC groups compared to the no ALC group.mTOR phosphorylation was higher in the no ALC group at 2 and 8h post exercise. p70S6Kphosphorylation was higher in the no ALC and the ALC-PRO group at 8h post exercise. Muscle protein synthesis was greater in the No ALC group than the ALC-PRO, which was greater than the ALC-CHO group.|
|Poulsen et al.  (2007)||19||Evaluate acute ALC intoxication on skeletal muscle function||1.5 g/L||ALC 96% with orange juice (ratio 1:4)||5 doses with intervals of 1h each.||-CK|
|MVC Isokinetic endurance and isometric knee extensors (30 extensions at a velocity of 180°/s)||Cross-Over||No differences in strength and endurance.|
No differences in CK.
Small reduction in Ca2+ only in the ALC group.
|Vingren et al.  (2013)||8||To examine the testosterone bioavailability and the anabolic endocrine milieu in response to acute ethanol ingestion||1.09 g/kg||ALC was diluted to a concentration of 19% v/v absolute ethanol in an artificially sweetened and calorie-free beverage||The participants drank 1/10 of the drink each minute during a 10-min ingestion period.||-HR|
|6 × 10squats starting at 80% of 1 RM and 2 min of rest between sets.||Cross-Over||No difference in HR, RPE and lactate. Serum testosterone and free testosterone was higher for ALC at 300min post exercise. FAI was higher in the ALC group. No difference in cortisol levels. No differences in estradiol.|
|Tot. 127||Mean 1.1g/kg|
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