Next Article in Journal
Metabolic Profile and Myocardial Performance of Renal Transplant Recipients Participating in Unsupervised Physical Exercise as a Prescription Program
Next Article in Special Issue
Perceived Barriers to Exercise in Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury Vary by Age
Previous Article in Journal
Open Tibial Fracture in a Non-Compliant Patient: A Case Report
Previous Article in Special Issue
Physical Health Mediates the Relationship between Psychological Well-Being and Engagement in Exercise across Age in a German Sample
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 45;

Internal Loads, but Not External Loads and Fatigue, Are Similar in Young and Middle-Aged Resistance-Trained Males during High Volume Squatting Exercise

Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Chester, Chester CH1 4BJ, UK
Higher Education Sport, University Centre Hartpury, Hartpury GL19 3BE, UK
This Paper is the Extended Version of Our Paper Published in the 23rd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science—Sport Science at the Cutting Edge, Dublin, Ireland, 4–7 July 2018.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Aging)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1609 KB, uploaded 22 August 2018]   |  


Little is known about the internal and external loads experienced during resistance exercise, or the subsequent fatigue-related response, across different age groups. This study compared the internal (heart rate, OMNI ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), session RPE) and external loads (peak velocity and power and volume load) during high volume squatting exercise (10 × 10 at 60% one-repetition maximum (1RM)) and the fatigue-related response (maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), resting doublet force, peak power, and blood lactate) in young (n = 9; age 22.3 ± 1.7 years) and middle-aged (n = 9; age 39.9 ± 6.2 years) resistance-trained males. All internal load variables and peak velocity illustrated unclear differences between groups during exercise. Peak power and volume load were likely higher in the young group compared to their middle-aged counterparts. The unclear differences in MVC, VA and blood lactate between groups after exercise were accompanied by very likely greater decrements in resting doublet force and peak power at 20 and 80% 1RM in the middle-aged group compared to the young group. These data indicate that internal load is not different between young and middle-aged resistance-trained males, though certain external load measures and the fatigue response are. View Full-Text
Keywords: resistance training; training load; ageing resistance training; training load; ageing

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Fernandes, J.F.T.; Lamb, K.L.; Twist, C. Internal Loads, but Not External Loads and Fatigue, Are Similar in Young and Middle-Aged Resistance-Trained Males during High Volume Squatting Exercise . J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3, 45.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. EISSN 2411-5142 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top