Next Article in Journal
The Game Is Not over Yet—Go in the Post-AlphaGo Era
Next Article in Special Issue
EvoDevo: Past and Future of Continuum and Process Plant Morphology
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
EvoDevo: An Ongoing Revolution?
Article

How Do Living Systems Create Meaning?

1
Independent Researcher, 11160 Caunes Minervois, France
2
Allen Discovery Center at Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Philosophies 2020, 5(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies5040036
Received: 26 September 2020 / Revised: 6 November 2020 / Accepted: 6 November 2020 / Published: 11 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renegotiating Disciplinary Fields in the Life Sciences)
Meaning has traditionally been regarded as a problem for philosophers and psychologists. Advances in cognitive science since the early 1960s, however, broadened discussions of meaning, or more technically, the semantics of perceptions, representations, and/or actions, into biology and computer science. Here, we review the notion of “meaning” as it applies to living systems, and argue that the question of how living systems create meaning unifies the biological and cognitive sciences across both organizational and temporal scales. View Full-Text
Keywords: active inference; attention; development; evolution; language; memory; pragmatics; reference frames; scale-free cognition; self; stigmergy active inference; attention; development; evolution; language; memory; pragmatics; reference frames; scale-free cognition; self; stigmergy
MDPI and ACS Style

Fields, C.; Levin, M. How Do Living Systems Create Meaning? Philosophies 2020, 5, 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies5040036

AMA Style

Fields C, Levin M. How Do Living Systems Create Meaning? Philosophies. 2020; 5(4):36. https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies5040036

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fields, Chris, and Michael Levin. 2020. "How Do Living Systems Create Meaning?" Philosophies 5, no. 4: 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies5040036

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop