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Recovery and Detection of Enteric Viruses from Non-Traditional Irrigation Water Sources

Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Methods Protoc. 2019, 2(3), 55;
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 30 June 2019
PDF [811 KB, uploaded 30 June 2019]


The variability of environmental water samples impacts the allowance of one method to be universally ideal for all water types and volumes. Surface and reclaimed waters can be used for crop irrigation and may be referred to as non-traditional irrigation waters as these water types may be associated with a higher risk of microbial contamination compared to groundwater. These waters are typically more microbially and chemically complex than groundwater and have a higher risk of viral contamination. To detect viruses in these water types, an infinite number of variations can be made to traditional recovery methods. This protocol was developed based on a commonly used virus adsorption and elution (VIRADEL) method. Additional steps were included to simplify and efficiently reduce particulates in the viral concentrate and remove DNA from eluted nucleic acids prior to detection. Method alterations allow for volumes up to 40 liters to be processed with consistent recovery of enteric viruses including Aichi virus, hepatitis A virus, and noroviruses belonging to genogroups GI and GII. No inhibition was observed among either surface or reclaimed water samples. This protocol could be utilized in the monitoring of a wide array of irrigation water sources throughout irrigation processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: enteric viruses; water; RT-qPCR; detection; irrigation; food safety enteric viruses; water; RT-qPCR; detection; irrigation; food safety

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Anderson-Coughlin, B.L.; Kniel, K.E. Recovery and Detection of Enteric Viruses from Non-Traditional Irrigation Water Sources. Methods Protoc. 2019, 2, 55.

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