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Article

A Feasibility Study on Proton Range Monitoring Using 13N Peak in Inhomogeneous Targets

1
Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
2
Institute of Nuclear Medical Physics, AERE, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka 1349, Bangladesh
3
Division of Radiation Protection and Safety Control, CYRIC, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
4
Department of Physics, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong
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Nuclear Safety Security Safeguard Division, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regularity Authority, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
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Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh
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Mirai Imaging Inc., Fukushima 970-1153, Japan
8
GO Proton Japan Inc., Tokyo 169-0074, Japan
9
National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology, Chiba 263-8555, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Emilio Quaia and Francis Man
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2313-2329; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050193
Received: 20 July 2022 / Revised: 6 September 2022 / Accepted: 13 September 2022 / Published: 15 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapy Monitoring Based on PET Imaging)
Proton irradiations are highly sensitive to spatial variations, mainly due to their high linear energy transfer (LET) and densely ionizing nature. In realistic clinical applications, the targets of ionizing radiation are inhomogeneous in terms of geometry and chemical composition (i.e., organs in the human body). One of the main methods for proton range monitoring is to utilize the production of proton induced positron emitting radionuclides; these could be measured precisely with positron emission tomography (PET) systems. One main positron emitting radionuclide that could be used for proton range monitoring and verification was found to be 13N that produces a peak close to the Bragg peak. In the present work, we have employed the Monte Carlo method and Spectral Analysis (SA) technique to investigate the feasibility of utilizing the 13N peak for proton range monitoring and verification in inhomogeneous targets. Two different phantom types, namely, (1) ordinary slab and (2) MIRD anthropomorphic phantoms, were used. We have found that the generated 13N peak in such highly inhomogeneous targets (ordinary slab and human phantom) is close to the actual Bragg peak, when irradiated by incident proton beam. The feasibility of using the SA technique to estimate the distribution of positron emitter was also investigated. The current findings and the developed tools in the present work would be helpful in proton range monitoring and verification in realistic clinical radiation therapy using proton beams. View Full-Text
Keywords: proton range monitoring; Monte Carlo method; inhomogeneous targets; proton therapy; positron emission tomography; PET proton range monitoring; Monte Carlo method; inhomogeneous targets; proton therapy; positron emission tomography; PET
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MDPI and ACS Style

Islam, M.R.; Shahmohammadi Beni, M.; Inamura, A.; Şafakattı, N.; Miyake, M.; Rahman, M.; Haque, A.K.F.; Ito, S.; Gotoh, S.; Yamaya, T.; Watabe, H. A Feasibility Study on Proton Range Monitoring Using 13N Peak in Inhomogeneous Targets. Tomography 2022, 8, 2313-2329. https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050193

AMA Style

Islam MR, Shahmohammadi Beni M, Inamura A, Şafakattı N, Miyake M, Rahman M, Haque AKF, Ito S, Gotoh S, Yamaya T, Watabe H. A Feasibility Study on Proton Range Monitoring Using 13N Peak in Inhomogeneous Targets. Tomography. 2022; 8(5):2313-2329. https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050193

Chicago/Turabian Style

Islam, Md. Rafiqul, Mehrdad Shahmohammadi Beni, Akihito Inamura, Nursel Şafakattı, Masayasu Miyake, Mahabubur Rahman, Abul Kalam Fazlul Haque, Shigeki Ito, Shinichi Gotoh, Taiga Yamaya, and Hiroshi Watabe. 2022. "A Feasibility Study on Proton Range Monitoring Using 13N Peak in Inhomogeneous Targets" Tomography 8, no. 5: 2313-2329. https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050193

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