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Recycling 2018, 3(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3010010

Valorization of Municipal Waterworks Sludge to Produce Ceramic Floor Tiles

Group of Ceramic Materials, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Northern Fluminense State University, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, Brazil
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Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recovery Recycling and Resilience)
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Abstract

In municipal waterworks large amounts of waste in the form of sludge have to be discarded. This investigation focuses on the processing of ceramic floor tiles incorporated with a municipal waterworks sludge. Four floor tile formulations containing up to 10 wt. % of the municipal waterworks sludge were prepared in order to replace the kaolin. The floor tile processing route consisted of dry powder granulation, uniaxial pressing, and firing between 1190 and 1250 °C using a fast-firing cycle (<60 min). The densification behavior and technological properties of the floor tile pieces as function of the sludge addition and firing temperature were determined. The development of the microstructure was followed by XRD and SEM/EDS. The results show that the replacement of kaolin with municipal waterworks sludge, in the range up to 10 wt. %, allows the production of ceramic floor tiles (group BIb and group BIIa, ISO 13006 Standard) at lower firing temperatures. These results suggest a new possibility of valorization of municipal waterworks sludge in order to bring economic and environmental benefits. View Full-Text
Keywords: municipal waterworks sludge; waste; recycling; valorization; floor tiles municipal waterworks sludge; waste; recycling; valorization; floor tiles
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Rodrigues, L.P.; De Holanda, J.N.F. Valorization of Municipal Waterworks Sludge to Produce Ceramic Floor Tiles. Recycling 2018, 3, 10.

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