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Batteries 2019, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5010013

Vanadium Electrolyte for All-Vanadium Redox-Flow Batteries: The Effect of the Counter Ion

1
Applied Electrochemistry, Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology, Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Str. 7, 76327 Pfinztal, Germany
2
German-Australian Alliance for Electrochemical Technologies for Storage of Renewable Energy (CENELEST), Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales (UNSW), UNSW Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
3
Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales (UNSW), UNSW Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Flow Batteries for Large-Scale Energy Storage)
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Abstract

In this study, 1.6 M vanadium electrolytes in the oxidation forms V(III) and V(V) were prepared from V(IV) in sulfuric (4.7 M total sulphate), V(IV) in hydrochloric (6.1 M total chloride) acids, as well as from 1:1 mol mixture of V(III) and V(IV) (denoted as V3.5+) in hydrochloric (7.6 M total chloride) acid. These electrolyte solutions were investigated in terms of performance in vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The half-wave potentials of the V(III)/V(II) and V(V)/V(IV) couples, determined by cyclic voltammetry, and the electronic spectra of V(III) and V(IV) electrolyte samples, are discussed to reveal the effect of electrolyte matrix on charge-discharge behavior of a 40 cm2 cell operated with 1.6 M V3.5+ electrolytes in sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. Provided that the total vanadium concentration and the conductivity of electrolytes are comparable for both acids, respective energy efficiencies of 77% and 72–75% were attained at a current density of 50 mA∙cm−2. All electrolytes in the oxidation state V(V) were examined for chemical stability at room temperature and +45 °C by titrimetric determination of the molar ratio V(V):V(IV) and total vanadium concentration. View Full-Text
Keywords: vanadium redox-flow battery; electrolyte; vanadium redox reactions; electrolyte stability vanadium redox-flow battery; electrolyte; vanadium redox reactions; electrolyte stability
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Roznyatovskaya, N.; Noack, J.; Mild, H.; Fühl, M.; Fischer, P.; Pinkwart, K.; Tübke, J.; Skyllas-Kazacos, M. Vanadium Electrolyte for All-Vanadium Redox-Flow Batteries: The Effect of the Counter Ion. Batteries 2019, 5, 13.

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