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Batteries 2019, 5(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5010012

Critical Review of the Use of Reference Electrodes in Li-Ion Batteries: A Diagnostic Perspective

National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW, UK
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Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract

Use of a reference electrode (RE) in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) aims to enable quantitative evaluation of various electrochemical aspects of operation such as: (i) the distinct contribution of each cell component to the overall battery performance, (ii) correct interpretation of current and voltage data with respect to the components, and (iii) the study of reaction mechanisms of individual electrodes. However, care needs to be taken to ensure the presence of the RE does not perturb the normal operation of the cell. Furthermore, if not properly controlled, geometrical and chemical features of the RE can have a significant influence on the measured response. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the range of RE types and configurations reported in the literature, with a focus on critical aspects such as electrochemical methods of analysis, cell geometry, and chemical composition of the RE and influence of the electrolyte. Some of the more controversial issues reported in the literature are highlighted and the benefits and drawbacks of the use of REs as an in situ diagnostic tool in LIBs are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: reference electrode; lithium-ion battery; batteries; impedance; EIS; two-electrode; three-electrode; geometry; composition; electrolyte reference electrode; lithium-ion battery; batteries; impedance; EIS; two-electrode; three-electrode; geometry; composition; electrolyte
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Raccichini, R.; Amores, M.; Hinds, G. Critical Review of the Use of Reference Electrodes in Li-Ion Batteries: A Diagnostic Perspective. Batteries 2019, 5, 12.

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