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Open AccessArticle

Electrochemical Performance and in Operando Charge Efficiency Measurements of Cu/Sn-Doped Nano Iron Electrodes

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
3
Material Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SCI, S-164 40 Kista, Sweden
4
Höganäs AB, SE-263 83 Höganäs, Sweden
5
Division of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 523, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Batteries 2019, 5(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5010001
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Battery Lifetime Testing, Analysis and Estimation)
Fe-air or Ni-Fe cells can offer low-cost and large-scale sustainable energy storage. At present, they are limited by low coulombic efficiency, low active material use, and poor rate capability. To overcome these challenges, two types of nanostructured doped iron materials were investigated: (1) copper and tin doped iron (CuSn); and (2) tin doped iron (Sn). Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was added to the electrode and LiOH to the electrolyte. In the 2 wt. % Cu + 2 wt. % Sn sample, the addition of SWCNT increased the discharge capacity from 430 to 475 mAh g−1, and charge efficiency increased from 83% to 93.5%. With the addition of both SWCNT and LiOH, the charge efficiency and discharge capacity improved to 91% and 603 mAh g−1, respectively. Meanwhile, the 4 wt. % Sn substituted sample performance is not on par with the 2 wt. % Cu + 2 wt. % Sn sample. The dopant elements (Cu and Sn) and additives (SWCNT and LiOH) have a major impact on the electrode performance. To understand the relation between hydrogen evolution and charge current density, we have used in operando charging measurements combined with mass spectrometry to quantify the evolved hydrogen. The electrodes that were subjected to prolonged overcharge upon hydrogen evolution failed rapidly. This insight could help in the development of better charging schemes for the iron electrodes. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron electrodes; Cu and Sn-doped iron; SWCNT and LiOH additives; charge efficiency; hydrogen evolution; GC-MS analysis iron electrodes; Cu and Sn-doped iron; SWCNT and LiOH additives; charge efficiency; hydrogen evolution; GC-MS analysis
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Paulraj, A.R.; Kiros, Y.; Chamoun, M.; Svengren, H.; Noréus, D.; Göthelid, M.; Skårman, B.; Vidarsson, H.; Johansson, M.B. Electrochemical Performance and in Operando Charge Efficiency Measurements of Cu/Sn-Doped Nano Iron Electrodes. Batteries 2019, 5, 1.

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