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Review

Green Synthesis of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: Principles of Green Chemistry and Raw Materials

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Department of Chemistry, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, 76018 Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine
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Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University, Medyczna 9, 30-688 Kraków, Poland
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Educational and Scientific Center of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, 76018 Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine
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School of Science and Technology, Glocal University, Saharanpur 247001, India
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Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Yonsei Frontier Lab, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vladimir I. Tsifrinovich and Andrea Caneschi
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(11), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7110145
Received: 5 September 2021 / Revised: 11 October 2021 / Accepted: 27 October 2021 / Published: 31 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Magnetic Force Microscopy)
Increased request for metal and metal oxide nanoparticles nanoparticles has led to their large-scale production using high-energy methods with various toxic solvents. This cause environmental contamination, thus eco-friendly “green” synthesis methods has become necessary. An alternative way to synthesize metal nanoparticles includes using bioresources, such as plants and plant products, bacteria, fungi, yeast, algae, etc. “Green” synthesis has low toxicity, is safe for human health and environment compared to other methods, meaning it is the best approach for obtaining metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. This review reveals 12 principles of “green” chemistry and examples of biological components suitable for “green” synthesis, as well as modern scientific research of eco-friendly synthesis methods of magnetic and metal nanoparticles. Particularly, using extracts of green tea, fruits, roots, leaves, etc., to obtain Fe3O4 NPs. The various precursors as egg white (albumen), leaf and fruit extracts, etc., can be used for the „green” synthesis of spinel magnetic NPs. “Green” nanoparticles are being widely used as antimicrobials, photocatalysts and adsorbents. “Green” magnetic nanoparticles demonstrate low toxicity and high biocompatibility, which allows for their biomedical application, especially for targeted drug delivery, contrast imaging and magnetic hyperthermia applications. The synthesis of silver, gold, platinum and palladium nanoparticles using extracts from fungi, red algae, fruits, etc., has been described. View Full-Text
Keywords: green synthesis; magnetite; spinel ferrite; metal nanoparticles green synthesis; magnetite; spinel ferrite; metal nanoparticles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Soltys, L.; Olkhovyy, O.; Tatarchuk, T.; Naushad, M. Green Synthesis of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: Principles of Green Chemistry and Raw Materials. Magnetochemistry 2021, 7, 145. https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7110145

AMA Style

Soltys L, Olkhovyy O, Tatarchuk T, Naushad M. Green Synthesis of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: Principles of Green Chemistry and Raw Materials. Magnetochemistry. 2021; 7(11):145. https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7110145

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soltys, Liubov, Ostap Olkhovyy, Tetiana Tatarchuk, and Mu. Naushad. 2021. "Green Synthesis of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: Principles of Green Chemistry and Raw Materials" Magnetochemistry 7, no. 11: 145. https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7110145

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