Next Article in Journal
Field Induced Single Ion Magnetic Behaviour in Square-Pyramidal Cobalt(II) Complexes with Easy-Plane Magnetic Anisotropy
Next Article in Special Issue
Molecular Probes for Evaluation of Oxidative Stress by In Vivo EPR Spectroscopy and Imaging: State-of-the-Art and Limitations
Previous Article in Journal
High-temperature Spin Crossover of a Solvent-Free Iron(II) Complex with the Linear Hexadentate Ligand [Fe(L2-3-2Ph)](AsF6)2 (L2-3-2Ph = bis[N-(1-Phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methylidene-2-aminoethyl]-1,3-propanediamine)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Biomolecular EPR Meets NMR at High Magnetic Fields
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Brain Redox Imaging Using In Vivo Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging and Nitroxide Imaging Probes

1
Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Ishikari, Hokkaido 061-0293, Japan
2
Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Sapporo, Hokkaido 002-8072, Japan
3
Department of Systems Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5010011
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 26 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electron Paramagnetic Resonance)
  |  
PDF [2481 KB, uploaded 2 February 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by living organisms as a result of normal cellular metabolism. Under normal physiological conditions, oxidative damage is prevented by the regulation of ROS by the antioxidant network. However, increased ROS and decreased antioxidant defense may contribute to many brain disorders, such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Noninvasive assessment of brain redox status is necessary for monitoring the disease state and the oxidative damage. Continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) imaging using redox-sensitive imaging probes, such as nitroxides, is a powerful method for visualizing the redox status modulated by oxidative stress in vivo. For conventional CW-EPR imaging, however, poor signal-to-noise ratio, low acquisition efficiency, and lack of anatomic visualization limit its ability to achieve three-dimensional redox mapping of small rodent brains. In this review, we discuss the instrumentation and coregistration of EPR images to anatomical images and appropriate nitroxide imaging probes, all of which are needed for a sophisticated in vivo EPR imager for all rodents. Using new EPR imaging systems, site-specific distribution and kinetics of nitroxide imaging probes in rodent brains can be obtained more accurately, compared to previous EPR imaging systems. We also describe the redox imaging studies of animal models of brain disease using newly developed EPR imaging. View Full-Text
Keywords: ROS; oxidative stress; redox status; EPR imaging; MRI; brain disease; antioxidant ROS; oxidative stress; redox status; EPR imaging; MRI; brain disease; antioxidant
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Fujii, H.G.; Emoto, M.C.; Sato-Akaba, H. Brain Redox Imaging Using In Vivo Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging and Nitroxide Imaging Probes. Magnetochemistry 2019, 5, 11.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Magnetochemistry EISSN 2312-7481 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top