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Fermented Foods and Beverages in Human Diet and Their Influence on Gut Microbiota and Health

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Universidade Católica Portuguesa, CBQF-Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina–Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Rua Arquiteto Lobão Vital, 172, 4200-374 Porto, Portugal
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CINTESIS—Centro de Investigação em Tecnologias e Serviços de Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade do Porto, Rua Doutor Plácido da Costa, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
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QOPNA—Unidade de Investigação de Química Orgânica, Produtos Naturais e Agroalimentares, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa, 1300-477 Lisboa, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fermentation 2018, 4(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4040090
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 28 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Foods—The Science of Fermented Foods)
Dietary changes have accompanied the evolution of humanity and is proven to be fundamental in human evolution and well-being. Nutrition is essential for survival and as a matter of health and equilibrium of the human body. About 1/3 of the human diet is composed by fermented foods and beverages, which are widely distributed and consumed in different societies around the world, no matter the culture and lifestyle. Fermented foods are derived from the fermentation process of different substrates by microorganisms, and more importantly to humans, by those with beneficial characteristics, due to the positive impact on health. Food is transformed in the gut, gaining new proprieties, and increasing its value to the organism. The effects of fermented foods and beverages can be assessed by its influence at the gut microbiota level. Recent studies show the major importance of the gut microbiota role in modulating the organism homeostasis and homeorhesis. More crosslinks between health, gut microbiota and diet are being established especially in the gut–brain axis field. Therefore, the benefits of diet, in particularly of fermented foods and beverages, should be studied and pursued in order to promote a good health status. View Full-Text
Keywords: fermented foods; probiotics; gut microbiota; gut-brain axis fermented foods; probiotics; gut microbiota; gut-brain axis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mota de Carvalho, N.; Costa, E.M.; Silva, S.; Pimentel, L.; Fernandes, T.H.; Pintado, M.E. Fermented Foods and Beverages in Human Diet and Their Influence on Gut Microbiota and Health. Fermentation 2018, 4, 90.

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