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Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030067

A Future Place for Saccharomyces Mixtures and Hybrids in Wine Making

Institute for Molecular Physiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 15, 55128 Mainz, Germany
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Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Fermentation)
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Abstract

Each year, winemakers can face sluggish or stuck fermentations during wine making, especially when a spontaneous fermentation is performed, even if strains of the classical wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are applied. Problems are inevitable when low ammonium concentrations (<160 mg L−1 grape must) or an excess of fructose compared to glucose are observed during grape must fermentation. S. cerevisiae strains cannot use all kinds of amino acids as the sole nitrogen source but usually need free ammonium (optimal concentration: 600 mg L−1 grape must). It preferably consumes glucose, leading often to an excess of fructose in the fermenting must, which contains glucose and fructose in an equal ratio at the beginning of fermentation. Yeast hybrids have been isolated from wines several times and different strains are already commercially available. The united properties of the parent strains can provide advantages under sophisticated fermentation conditions. However, the involvement of a hybrid yeast for the rectification of fermentation disorders in spontaneous fermentations has only been described recently in the literature. Recent investigations have provided convincing evidence that fermentation problems can be overcome when must fermentations are successively performed with Saccharomyces bayanus strain HL 77 and the triple hybrid S. cerevisiae × Saccharomyces kudriavzevii × S. bayanus strain HL 78. The triple hybrid strain HL 78 uses amino acids as a nitrogen source in the absence of ammonium and it also exhibits a fructophilic character with an enhanced uptake of fructose in comparison to glucose. The application of genetically modified yeast strains is not allowed for starter cultures in wine making, but the usage of yeast mixtures and hybrid strains could be a promising tool for winemakers to solve fermentation problems during spontaneous fermentation or for the creation of novel wine types with desired sensory characteristics under more challenging conditions, especially when the composition of the must components is not optimal because of, e.g., critical climatic or soil conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Saccharomyces; yeast hybrids; yeast mixtures; spontaneous fermentation; stuck and sluggish fermentation Saccharomyces; yeast hybrids; yeast mixtures; spontaneous fermentation; stuck and sluggish fermentation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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König, H.; Claus, H. A Future Place for Saccharomyces Mixtures and Hybrids in Wine Making. Fermentation 2018, 4, 67.

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