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Open AccessReview

Fumaric Acid Production: A Biorefinery Perspective

Chemical Engineering and Materials Department, Chemistry College, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 33;
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Production of Added-value Products from Renewable Resources)
The increasing scarcity of fossil raw materials, together with the need to develop new processes and technology based on renewable sources, and the need to dispose of an increasing amount of biomass-derived waste, have boosted the concept of biorefineries. Both 1G and 2G biorefineries are focused on the obtention of biofuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed from biomass, a renewable resource. Fumaric acid, and most compounds involved in the Kreb cycle, are considered key platform chemicals, not only for being acidulants and additives in the food industry, but also for their prospective use as monomers. This review is focused on the biotechnological processes based on fungi, mainly of the Rhizopus genus, whose main product is fumaric acid, on the process conditions, the bioreactors and modes of operation and on the purification of the acid once it is produced. View Full-Text
Keywords: biorefinery; fumaric acid; waste valorization; bioprocess; bioreactor biorefinery; fumaric acid; waste valorization; bioprocess; bioreactor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martin-Dominguez, V.; Estevez, J.; Ojembarrena, F.D.B.; Santos, V.E.; Ladero, M. Fumaric Acid Production: A Biorefinery Perspective. Fermentation 2018, 4, 33.

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