Next Article in Journal
Impact of Glucose Concentration and NaCl Osmotic Stress on Yeast Cell Wall β-d-Glucan Formation during Anaerobic Fermentation Process
Next Article in Special Issue
Interaction between Galactomyces geotrichum KL20B, Lactobacillus plantarum LAT3 and Enterococcus faecalis KE06 during Milk Fermentation
Previous Article in Journal
A Pichia anomala Strain (P. anomala M1) Isolated from Traditional Greek Sausage is an Effective Producer of Extracellular Lipolytic Enzyme in Submerged Fermentation
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Importance of a Comparative Characterization of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and Saccharomyces Pastorianus Strains for Brewing
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Time-Dependent Production of the Bioactive Peptides Endolides A and B and the Polyketide Mariline A from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Stachylidium bicolor 293K04

Fundación MEDINA, Avenida del Conocimiento 34, Parque Tecnológico de Ciencias de la Salud, E-18016 Granada, Spain
UCIBIO-REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Texas Therapeutics Institute, The Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1881 East Road, Houston, TX 77054, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fermentation 2017, 3(3), 45;
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 27 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation and Bioactive Metabolites)
PDF [3065 KB, uploaded 6 September 2017]


Previous investigations of the sponge-derived fungus Stachylidium bicolor (S. bicolor) 293K04 led to the isolation of the biosynthetically unusual polyketides marilines A-C and the bioactive tetrapeptides endolides A-B, identified as potential neuropathic drug leads. Furthermore, prior extended solid cultivation of S. bicolor 293K04 for 60 days resulted in a significant increase of polyketide yield, and the isolation of seven new polyketides. Due to the interest in endolide activity, unusual biosynthetic diversity, and the late stage polyketide production, we studied the cultivation conditions for determining the production time distribution and yields of these secondary metabolites. Results indicated a first production phase of secondary metabolite dominated by peptides, after 21–23 days. Polyketide mariline A1/A2 only started at day 35 of growth, an unusually late period for secondary metabolite expression. This unusual bimodal sequential expression of different families of secondary metabolites suggests value in exploring extended cultivation times to identify novel bioactive fungal compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungi; natural products; fermentation; production conditions fungi; natural products; fermentation; production conditions

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Almeida, C.; Bills, G.; González-Menéndez, V.; Martin, J.; Tormo, J.R.; Genilloud, O. Time-Dependent Production of the Bioactive Peptides Endolides A and B and the Polyketide Mariline A from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Stachylidium bicolor 293K04. Fermentation 2017, 3, 45.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Fermentation EISSN 2311-5637 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top