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Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5010007

Functional Interplay between RNA Viruses and Non-Coding RNA in Mammals

1
Copenhagen Hepatitis C Program (CO-HEP), Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
Department of Infectious Diseases, Hvidovre Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark
3
Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 31 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Viral Infections)
PDF [732 KB, uploaded 14 January 2019]

Abstract

Exploring virus–host interactions is key to understand mechanisms regulating the viral replicative cycle and any pathological outcomes associated with infection. Whereas interactions at the protein level are well explored, RNA interactions are less so. Novel sequencing methodologies have helped uncover the importance of RNA–protein and RNA–RNA interactions during infection. In addition to messenger RNAs (mRNAs), mammalian cells express a great number of regulatory non-coding RNAs, some of which are crucial for regulation of the immune system whereas others are utilized by viruses. It is thus becoming increasingly clear that RNA interactions play important roles for both sides in the arms race between virus and host. With the emerging field of RNA therapeutics, such interactions are promising antiviral targets. In this review, we discuss direct and indirect RNA interactions occurring between RNA viruses or retroviruses and host non-coding transcripts upon infection. In addition, we review RNA virus derived non-coding RNAs affecting immunological and metabolic pathways of the host cell typically to provide an advantage to the virus. The relatively few known examples of virus–host RNA interactions suggest that many more await discovery.
Keywords: virus; RNA; micro-RNA; long non-coding RNA; sub-genomic flavivirus RNA; RNA interference; post-transcriptional regulation; RNA interactions virus; RNA; micro-RNA; long non-coding RNA; sub-genomic flavivirus RNA; RNA interference; post-transcriptional regulation; RNA interactions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Damas, N.D.; Fossat, N.; Scheel, T.K.H. Functional Interplay between RNA Viruses and Non-Coding RNA in Mammals. Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5, 7.

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