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Functional Interplay between RNA Viruses and Non-Coding RNA in Mammals
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Multifunctional miR-155 Pathway in Avian Oncogenic Virus-Induced Neoplastic Diseases

Avian Oncogenic Viruses, The Pirbright Institute and the UK-China Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases, Pirbright, Ash Road, Guildford, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, 11a Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SZ, United Kingdom.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(1), 24;
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Viral Infections)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that fine-tune the responses of the cell by modulating the cell transcriptome and gene expression. MicroRNA 155 (miR-155) is a conserved multifunctional miRNA involved in multiple roles including the modulation of the immune responses. When deregulated, miR-155 can also contribute to cancer as has been demonstrated in several human malignancies such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, as well as in Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-induced B cell transformation. Avian oncogenic viruses such as Marek’s disease virus (MDV), avian leukosis virus (ALV), and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) that account for more than 90% of cancers in avian species, also make use of the miR-155 pathway during oncogenesis. While oncogenic retroviruses, such as ALV, activate miR-155 by insertional activation, acutely transforming retroviruses use transduced oncogenes such as v-rel to upregulate miR-155 expression. MDV on the other hand, encodes a functional miR-155 ortholog mdv1-miR-M4, similar to the miR-155 ortholog kshv-miR-K11 present in Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). We have shown that mdv1-miR-M4 is critical for the induction of MDV-induced lymphomas further demonstrating the oncogenic potential of miR-155 pathway in cancers irrespective of the diverse etiology. In this review, we discuss on our current understanding of miR-155 function in virus-induced lymphomas focusing primarily on avian oncogenic viruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: miR-155; oncogenesis; EBV; KSHV; MDV; ALV; REV miR-155; oncogenesis; EBV; KSHV; MDV; ALV; REV
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Bondada, M.S.; Yao, Y.; Nair, V. Multifunctional miR-155 Pathway in Avian Oncogenic Virus-Induced Neoplastic Diseases. Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5, 24.

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