The function of microRNAs (miRNAs) during fibrosis and the downstream regulation of gene expression by these miRNAs have become of great biological interest. miR-155 is consistently upregulated in fibrotic disorders, and its ablation downregulates collagen synthesis. Studies demonstrate the integral role of miR-155 in fibrosis, as it mediates TGF-β1 signaling to drive collagen synthesis. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the association between miR-155 and fibrotic disorders. We discuss the cross-signaling between macrophages and fibroblasts that orchestrates the upregulation of collagen synthesis mediated by miR-155. As miR-155 is involved in the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, specific targeting of miR-155 in pathologic cells that make excessive collagen could be a viable option before the depletion of miR-155 becomes an attractive antifibrotic approach.
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