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Metazoan tsRNAs: Biogenesis, Evolution and Regulatory Functions

by Shengqian Dou, Yirong Wang and Jian Lu *
State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, Center for Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the paper.
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(1), 18;
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs, from an Evolutionary Perspective)
Transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) are an emerging class of regulatory non-coding RNAs that play important roles in post-transcriptional regulation across a variety of biological processes. Here, we review the recent advances in tsRNA biogenesis and regulatory functions from the perspectives of functional and evolutionary genomics, with a focus on the tsRNA biology of Drosophila. We first summarize our current understanding of the biogenesis mechanisms of different categories of tsRNAs that are generated under physiological or stressed conditions. Next, we review the conservation patterns of tsRNAs in all domains of life, with an emphasis on the conservation of tsRNAs between two Drosophila species. Then, we elaborate the currently known regulatory functions of tsRNAs in mRNA translation that are independent of, or dependent on, Argonaute (AGO) proteins. We also highlight some issues related to the fundamental biology of tsRNAs that deserve further study. View Full-Text
Keywords: tRNA-derived small RNAs; tsRNAs; translational regulation; stress response; Argonaute tRNA-derived small RNAs; tsRNAs; translational regulation; stress response; Argonaute
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Dou, S.; Wang, Y.; Lu, J. Metazoan tsRNAs: Biogenesis, Evolution and Regulatory Functions. Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5, 18.

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