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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Fast Models of Hydrocarbon Migration Paths and Pressure Depletion Based on Complex Analysis Methods (CAM): Mini-Review and Verification

1
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering, Texas A&M University, 3116 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-3116, USA
2
Department of Mathematics, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 November 2019 / Revised: 3 December 2019 / Accepted: 6 December 2019 / Published: 5 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fluids)
A recently developed code to model hydrocarbon migration and convective time of flight makes use of complex analysis methods (CAM) paired with Eulerian particle tracking. Because the method uses new algorithms that are uniquely developed by our research group, validation of the fast CAM solutions with independent methods is merited. Particle path solutions were compared with independent solutions methods (Eclipse). These prior and new benchmarks are briefly summarized here to further verify the results obtained with CAM codes. Pressure field solutions based on CAM are compared with independent embedded discrete fracture method (EDFM) solutions. The CAM method is particularly attractive because its grid-less nature offers fast computation times and unlimited resolution. The method is particularly well suited for solving a variety of practical field development problems. Examples are given for fast optimization of waterflood patterns. Another successful application area is the modeling of fluid withdrawal patterns in hydraulically fractured wells. Because no gridding is required, the CAM model can compute the evolution of the drained rock volume (DRV) for an unlimited (but finite) number of both hydraulic and natural fractures. Such computations of the DRV are based on the convective time of flight and show the fluid withdrawal zone in the reservoir. In contrast, pressure depletion models are based on the diffusive time of flight. In ultra-low permeability reservoirs, the pressure depletion zones do not correspond to the DRV, because the convective and diffusive displacement rates differ over an order of magnitude (diffusive time of flight being the fastest). Therefore, pressure depletion models vastly overestimate the drained volume in shale reservoirs, which is why fracture and well spacing decisions should be based on both pressure depletion and DRV models, not pressure only. View Full-Text
Keywords: complex analysis methods; flow path models; pressure depletion; drained Rock volume; time of flight complex analysis methods; flow path models; pressure depletion; drained Rock volume; time of flight
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MDPI and ACS Style

Weijermars, R.; Khanal, A.; Zuo, L. Fast Models of Hydrocarbon Migration Paths and Pressure Depletion Based on Complex Analysis Methods (CAM): Mini-Review and Verification. Fluids 2020, 5, 7.

AMA Style

Weijermars R, Khanal A, Zuo L. Fast Models of Hydrocarbon Migration Paths and Pressure Depletion Based on Complex Analysis Methods (CAM): Mini-Review and Verification. Fluids. 2020; 5(1):7.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Weijermars, Ruud; Khanal, Aadi; Zuo, Lihua. 2020. "Fast Models of Hydrocarbon Migration Paths and Pressure Depletion Based on Complex Analysis Methods (CAM): Mini-Review and Verification" Fluids 5, no. 1: 7.

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