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Fluids 2018, 3(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids3040088

Extreme Learning Machines as Encoders for Sparse Reconstruction

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-5016, USA
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Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 27 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reduced Order Modeling of Fluid Flows)
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Abstract

Reconstruction of fine-scale information from sparse data is often needed in practical fluid dynamics where the sensors are typically sparse and yet, one may need to learn the underlying flow structures or inform predictions through assimilation into data-driven models. Given that sparse reconstruction is inherently an ill-posed problem, the most successful approaches encode the physics into an underlying sparse basis space that spans the manifold to generate well-posedness. To achieve this, one commonly uses a generic orthogonal Fourier basis or a data specific proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) basis to reconstruct from sparse sensor information at chosen locations. Such a reconstruction problem is well-posed as long as the sensor locations are incoherent and can sample the key physical mechanisms. The resulting inverse problem is easily solved using l 2 minimization or if necessary, sparsity promoting l 1 minimization. Given the proliferation of machine learning and the need for robust reconstruction frameworks in the face of dynamically evolving flows, we explore in this study the suitability of non-orthogonal basis obtained from extreme learning machine (ELM) auto-encoders for sparse reconstruction. In particular, we assess the interplay between sensor quantity and sensor placement in a given system dimension for accurate reconstruction of canonical fluid flows in comparison to POD-based reconstruction. View Full-Text
Keywords: sparse reconstruction; extreme learning machines; sensors; singular value decomposition; proper orthogonal decomposition; compressive sensing sparse reconstruction; extreme learning machines; sensors; singular value decomposition; proper orthogonal decomposition; compressive sensing
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Al Mamun, S.M.A.; Lu, C.; Jayaraman, B. Extreme Learning Machines as Encoders for Sparse Reconstruction. Fluids 2018, 3, 88.

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