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Article

Stress-Activated Protein Kinase Signalling Regulates Mycoparasitic Hyphal-Hyphal Interactions in Trichoderma atroviride

1
Department of Microbiology, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ulrich Kück
J. Fungi 2021, 7(5), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050365
Received: 20 April 2021 / Revised: 30 April 2021 / Accepted: 1 May 2021 / Published: 6 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signal Transductions in Fungi)
Trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasitic fungus used as biological control agent against fungal plant pathogens. The recognition and appropriate morphogenetic responses to prey-derived signals are essential for successful mycoparasitism. We established microcolony confrontation assays using T. atroviride strains expressing cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) interactive binding (CRIB) reporters to analyse morphogenetic changes and the dynamic displacement of localized GTPase activity during polarized tip growth. Microscopic analyses showed that Trichoderma experiences significant polarity stress when approaching its fungal preys. The perception of prey-derived signals is integrated via the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling network, and deletion of the MAP kinases Trichoderma MAPK 1 (Tmk1) and Tmk3 affected T. atroviride tip polarization, chemotropic growth, and contact-induced morphogenesis so severely that the establishment of mycoparasitism was highly inefficient to impossible. The responses varied depending on the prey species and the interaction stage, reflecting the high selectivity of the signalling process. Our data suggest that Tmk3 affects the polarity-stress adaptation process especially during the pre-contact phase, whereas Tmk1 regulates contact-induced morphogenesis at the early-contact phase. Neither Tmk1 nor Tmk3 loss-of-function could be fully compensated within the GTPase/MAPK signalling network underscoring the crucial importance of a sensitive polarized tip growth apparatus for successful mycoparasitism. View Full-Text
Keywords: Trichoderma atroviride; mycoparasitism; plant pathogens; polarity stress; CRIB reporter; GTPase activity; MAPK/SAPK signalling Trichoderma atroviride; mycoparasitism; plant pathogens; polarity stress; CRIB reporter; GTPase activity; MAPK/SAPK signalling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moreno-Ruiz, D.; Salzmann, L.; Fricker, M.D.; Zeilinger, S.; Lichius, A. Stress-Activated Protein Kinase Signalling Regulates Mycoparasitic Hyphal-Hyphal Interactions in Trichoderma atroviride. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 365. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050365

AMA Style

Moreno-Ruiz D, Salzmann L, Fricker MD, Zeilinger S, Lichius A. Stress-Activated Protein Kinase Signalling Regulates Mycoparasitic Hyphal-Hyphal Interactions in Trichoderma atroviride. Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(5):365. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050365

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moreno-Ruiz, Dubraska, Linda Salzmann, Mark D. Fricker, Susanne Zeilinger, and Alexander Lichius. 2021. "Stress-Activated Protein Kinase Signalling Regulates Mycoparasitic Hyphal-Hyphal Interactions in Trichoderma atroviride" Journal of Fungi 7, no. 5: 365. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050365

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