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Identification and Biotyping of Pythium insidiosum Isolated from Urban and Rural Areas of Thailand by Multiplex PCR, DNA Barcode, and Proteomic Analyses

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Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
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Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
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Department of Microbiology, University of Medicine, Mandalay 05024, Myanmar
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Department of Large Animal and Wildlife Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand
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Equine Clinic, Kasetsart University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand
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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
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Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Craig Faulds
J. Fungi 2021, 7(4), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040242
Received: 25 February 2021 / Revised: 13 March 2021 / Accepted: 15 March 2021 / Published: 24 March 2021
Pythium insidiosum causes pythiosis, a fatal infectious disease of humans and animals worldwide. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to improve the clinical outcome of pythiosis. Diagnosis of P. insidiosum relies on immunological, molecular, and proteomic assays. The main treatment of pythiosis aims to surgically remove all affected tissue to prevent recurrent infection. Due to the marked increase in case reports, pythiosis has become a public health concern. Thailand is an endemic area of human pythiosis. To obtain a complete picture of how the pathogen circulates in the environment, we surveyed the presence of P. insidiosum in urban (Bangkok) and rural areas of Thailand. We employed the hair-baiting technique to screen for P. insidiosum in 500 water samples. Twenty-seven culture-positive samples were identified as P. insidiosum by multiplex PCR, multi-DNA barcode (rDNA, cox1, cox2), and mass spectrometric analyses. These environmental strains of P. insidiosum fell into Clade-II and -III genotypes and exhibited a close phylogenetic/proteomic relationship with Thai clinical strains. Biodiversity of the environmental strains also existed in a local habitat. In conclusion, P. insidiosum is widespread in Thailand. A better understanding of the ecological niche of P. insidiosum could lead to the effective prevention and control of this pathogen. View Full-Text
Keywords: pythiosis; Pythium insidiosum; environment isolate; DNA barcode; biotyping pythiosis; Pythium insidiosum; environment isolate; DNA barcode; biotyping
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mar Htun, Z.; Laikul, A.; Pathomsakulwong, W.; Yurayart, C.; Lohnoo, T.; Yingyong, W.; Kumsang, Y.; Payattikul, P.; Sae-Chew, P.; Rujirawat, T.; Jittorntam, P.; Jaturapaktrarak, C.; Chongtrakool, P.; Krajaejun, T. Identification and Biotyping of Pythium insidiosum Isolated from Urban and Rural Areas of Thailand by Multiplex PCR, DNA Barcode, and Proteomic Analyses. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 242. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040242

AMA Style

Mar Htun Z, Laikul A, Pathomsakulwong W, Yurayart C, Lohnoo T, Yingyong W, Kumsang Y, Payattikul P, Sae-Chew P, Rujirawat T, Jittorntam P, Jaturapaktrarak C, Chongtrakool P, Krajaejun T. Identification and Biotyping of Pythium insidiosum Isolated from Urban and Rural Areas of Thailand by Multiplex PCR, DNA Barcode, and Proteomic Analyses. Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(4):242. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040242

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mar Htun, Zin; Laikul, Aree; Pathomsakulwong, Watcharapol; Yurayart, Chompoonek; Lohnoo, Tassanee; Yingyong, Wanta; Kumsang, Yothin; Payattikul, Penpan; Sae-Chew, Pattarana; Rujirawat, Thidarat; Jittorntam, Paisan; Jaturapaktrarak, Chalisa; Chongtrakool, Piriyaporn; Krajaejun, Theerapong. 2021. "Identification and Biotyping of Pythium insidiosum Isolated from Urban and Rural Areas of Thailand by Multiplex PCR, DNA Barcode, and Proteomic Analyses" J. Fungi 7, no. 4: 242. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040242

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