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Zinc-Based Nanomaterials for Diagnosis and Management of Plant Diseases: Ecological Safety and Future Prospects

1
Electron Microscopy and Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab, India
2
Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Plant Pathology Research Institute, Giza 12619, Egypt
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Králové, 500 03 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2020, 6(4), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040222
Received: 22 September 2020 / Revised: 5 October 2020 / Accepted: 10 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Nanotechnology)
A facet of nanorenaissance in plant pathology hailed the research on the development and application of nanoformulations or nanoproducts for the effective management of phytopathogens deterring the growth and yield of plants and thus the overall crop productivity. Zinc nanomaterials represent a versatile class of nanoproducts and nanoenabled devices as these nanomaterials can be synthesized in quantum amounts through economically affordable processes/approaches. Further, these nanomaterials exhibit potential targeted antimicrobial properties and low to negligible phytotoxicity activities that well-qualify them to be applied directly or in a deviant manner to accomplish significant antibacterial, antimycotic, antiviral, and antitoxigenic activities against diverse phytopathogens causing plant diseases. The photo-catalytic, fluorescent, and electron generating aspects associated with zinc nanomaterials have been utilized for the development of sensor systems (optical and electrochemical biosensors), enabling quick, early, sensitive, and on-field assessment or quantification of the test phytopathogen. However, the proficient use of Zn-derived nanomaterials in the management of plant pathogenic diseases as nanopesticides and on-field sensor system demands that the associated eco- and biosafety concerns should be well discerned and effectively sorted beforehand. Current and possible utilization of zinc-based nanostructures in plant disease diagnosis and management and their safety in the agroecosystem is highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecotoxicity; nanomaterial; nanosensors; phytopathogens; zinc ecotoxicity; nanomaterial; nanosensors; phytopathogens; zinc
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Kalia, A.; Abd-Elsalam, K.A.; Kuca, K. Zinc-Based Nanomaterials for Diagnosis and Management of Plant Diseases: Ecological Safety and Future Prospects. J. Fungi 2020, 6, 222.

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