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The “Little Iron Waltz”: The Ternary Response of Paracoccidioides spp. to Iron Deprivation

Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, ICB II, Campus II, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia 74000-000, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2020, 6(4), 221;
Received: 17 September 2020 / Revised: 6 October 2020 / Accepted: 9 October 2020 / Published: 12 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paracoccidioides and Paracoccidioidomycosis)
Paracoccidioides is a genus of thermodimorphic fungi that causes paracoccidioidomycosis. When in the host, the fungus undergoes several challenges, including iron deprivation imposed by nutritional immunity. In response to the iron deprivation triggered by the host, the fungus responds in a ternary manner using mechanisms of high affinity and specificity for the uptake of Fe, namely non-classical reductive iron uptake pathway, uptake of host iron proteins, and biosynthesis and uptake of siderophores. This triple response resembles the rhythmic structure of a waltz, which features three beats per compass. Using this connotation, we have constructed this review summarizing relevant findings in this area of study and pointing out new discoveries and perspectives that may contribute to the expansion of this “little iron waltz”. View Full-Text
Keywords: siderophores; CFEM proteins; reductive iron uptake pathway siderophores; CFEM proteins; reductive iron uptake pathway
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de Souza, A.F.; de Paula, M.S.; Lima, R.M.; Silva, M.G.; de Curcio, J.S.; Pereira, M.; de Almeida Soares, C.M. The “Little Iron Waltz”: The Ternary Response of Paracoccidioides spp. to Iron Deprivation. J. Fungi 2020, 6, 221.

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