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An Overview on Conventional and Non-Conventional Therapeutic Approaches for the Treatment of Candidiasis and Underlying Resistance Mechanisms in Clinical Strains

1
Department of Bioengineering, Institute of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
2
Centro de Química Estrutural, Complexo I, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2020, 6(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6010023
Received: 15 January 2020 / Revised: 6 February 2020 / Accepted: 7 February 2020 / Published: 10 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Diagnostics of Fungal Infections)
Fungal infections and, in particular, those caused by species of the Candida genus, are growing at an alarming rate and have high associated rates of mortality and morbidity. These infections, generally referred as candidiasis, range from common superficial rushes caused by an overgrowth of the yeasts in mucosal surfaces to life-threatening disseminated mycoses. The success of currently used antifungal drugs to treat candidiasis is being endangered by the continuous emergence of resistant strains, specially among non-albicans Candida species. In this review article, the mechanisms of action of currently used antifungals, with emphasis on the mechanisms of resistance reported in clinical isolates, are reviewed. Novel approaches being taken to successfully inhibit growth of pathogenic Candida species, in particular those based on the exploration of natural or synthetic chemicals or on the activity of live probiotics, are also reviewed. It is expected that these novel approaches, either used alone or in combination with traditional antifungals, may contribute to foster the identification of novel anti-Candida therapies.
Keywords: candidiasis; antifungal drugs; resistance to antifungals; non-conventional therapeutics; phytotherapeutics and probiotics; antimicrobials; Candida candidiasis; antifungal drugs; resistance to antifungals; non-conventional therapeutics; phytotherapeutics and probiotics; antimicrobials; Candida
MDPI and ACS Style

Salazar, S.B.; Simões, R.S.; Pedro, N.A.; Pinheiro, M.J.; Carvalho, M.F.N.N.; Mira, N.P. An Overview on Conventional and Non-Conventional Therapeutic Approaches for the Treatment of Candidiasis and Underlying Resistance Mechanisms in Clinical Strains. J. Fungi 2020, 6, 23.

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