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Estimating the Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Uruguay

Sistema Nacional de Investigadores, Agencia Nacional de Investigación e Innovación, Montevideo 11500, Uruguay
National Aspergillosis Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital and The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Leading International Fungal Education (LIFE), Cheshire SK10 9AR, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 37;
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 18 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Burden in Different Countries)
We aimed to estimate for the first time the burden of fungal infections in Uruguay. Data on population characteristics and underlying conditions were extracted from the National Statistics Institute, the World Bank, national registries, and published articles. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies extrapolating from the literature. Population structure (inhabitants): total 3,444,006; 73% adults; 35% women younger than 50 years. Size of populations at risk (total cases per year): HIV infected 12,000; acute myeloid leukemia 126; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 30; solid organ transplants 134; COPD 272,006; asthma in adults 223,431; cystic fibrosis in adults 48; tuberculosis 613; lung cancer 1400. Annual incidence estimations per 100,000: invasive aspergillosis, 22.4; candidemia, 16.4; Candida peritonitis, 3.7; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, 1.62; cryptococcosis, 0.75; severe asthma with fungal sensitization, 217; allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, 165; recurrent Candida vaginitis, 6323; oral candidiasis, 74.5; and esophageal candidiasis, 25.7. Although some under and overestimations could have been made, we expect that at least 127,525 people suffer from serious fungal infections each year. Sporothrichosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and dermatophytosis are known to be frequent but no data are available to make accurate estimations. Given the magnitude of the burden of fungal infections in Uruguay, efforts should be made to improve surveillance, strengthen laboratory diagnosis, and warrant access to first line antifungals. View Full-Text
Keywords: epidemiology of fungal infections; infection burden; Uruguay epidemiology of fungal infections; infection burden; Uruguay
MDPI and ACS Style

Macedo-Viñas, M.; Denning, D.W. Estimating the Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Uruguay. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 37.

AMA Style

Macedo-Viñas M, Denning DW. Estimating the Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Uruguay. Journal of Fungi. 2018; 4(1):37.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Macedo-Viñas, Marina, and David W. Denning. 2018. "Estimating the Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Uruguay" Journal of Fungi 4, no. 1: 37.

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