Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
The Candida albicans Biofilm Matrix: Composition, Structure and Function
Previous Article in Journal
Characterization of Blue Mold Penicillium Species Isolated from Stored Fruits Using Multiple Highly Conserved Loci
Previous Article in Special Issue
Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?
Open AccessArticle

Real-Time Approach to Flow Cell Imaging of Candida albicans Biofilm Development

Department of Oral Biology, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mahmoud A. Ghannoum
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 13;
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Biofilms)
The ability of Candida albicans to form biofilms is a virulence factor that allows tissue attachment and subsequent infection of host tissues. Fungal biofilms have been particularly well studied, however the vast majority of these studies have been conducted under static conditions. Oral biofilms form in the presence of salivary flow, therefore we developed a novel flow system used for real-time imaging of fungal biofilm development. C. albicans wild-type (WT) cells readily attached to the substrate surface during the 2 h attachment phase, then formed heterogeneous biofilms after 18 h flow. Quantitative values for biomass, rates of attachment and detachment, and cell–cell adhesion events were obtained for C. albicans WT cells and for a hyperfilamentous mutant Δhog1. Attachment rates of C. albicans WT cells were nearly 2-fold higher than C. albicans Δhog1 cells, although Δhog1 cells formed 4-fold higher biomass. The reduced normalized detachment rate was the primary factor responsible for the increased biomass of Δhog1 biofilm, showing that cell detachment rates are an important predictor for ultimate biofilm mass under flow. Unlike static biofilms, C. albicans cells under constant laminar flow undergo continuous detachment and seeding that may be more representative of the development of in vivo biofilms. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida albicans; biofilm; flow; time-lapse Candida albicans; biofilm; flow; time-lapse
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

McCall, A.; Edgerton, M. Real-Time Approach to Flow Cell Imaging of Candida albicans Biofilm Development. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 13.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop