Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Covering and Re-Covering the Heart: Development and Regeneration of the Epicardium
Previous Article in Journal
Reply to the Comment on: Marco Cirillo The Memory of the Heart. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5, 55
Previous Article in Special Issue
Coronary Vasculature in Cardiac Development and Regeneration
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Transcriptional Programs and Regeneration Enhancers Underlying Heart Regeneration

Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 2;
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 22 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Regeneration in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates)
PDF [984 KB, uploaded 22 December 2018]


The heart plays the vital role of propelling blood to the entire body, which is essential to life. While maintaining heart function is critical, adult mammalian hearts poorly regenerate damaged cardiac tissue upon injury and form scar tissue instead. Unlike adult mammals, adult zebrafish can regenerate injured hearts with no sign of scarring, making zebrafish an ideal model system with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying heart regeneration. Investigation of heart regeneration in zebrafish together with mice has revealed multiple cardiac regeneration genes that are induced by injury to facilitate heart regeneration. Altered expression of these regeneration genes in adult mammals is one of the main causes of heart regeneration failure. Previous studies have focused on the roles of these regeneration genes, yet the regulatory mechanisms by which the expression of cardiac regeneration genes is precisely controlled are largely unknown. In this review, we will discuss the importance of differential gene expression for heart regeneration, the recent discovery of cardiac injury or regeneration enhancers, and their impact on heart regeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart; zebrafish; regeneration; enhancer; transcription; gene regulation; development heart; zebrafish; regeneration; enhancer; transcription; gene regulation; development

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Begeman, I.J.; Kang, J. Transcriptional Programs and Regeneration Enhancers Underlying Heart Regeneration. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6, 2.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. EISSN 2308-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top