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Article

PRM1 Gene Expression and Its Protein Abundance in Frozen-Thawed Spermatozoa as Potential Fertility Markers in Breeding Bulls

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Department of Veterinary Clinic, Reproduction, and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
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Department of Animal Production and Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lucas Lima Verardo, Simone E. F. Guimarães and Marcos Vinícius G. B. Da Silva
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030111
Received: 28 December 2021 / Revised: 22 February 2022 / Accepted: 25 February 2022 / Published: 3 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Reproductive Traits in Farm Animal)
Functional genes and proteins in sperm play an essential role in bulls’ reproductive processes. They are more accurate in determining bull fertility than conventional semen quality tests. Protamine-1 (PRM1) is a gene or protein crucial for packaging and protecting sperm DNA until fertilization affects normal sperm function. This study analyzes the genes and proteins potential from PRM1 as fertility markers for different breeds of bulls utilized in the artificial insemination programs, expected to be an accurate tool in interpreting bull fertility in Indonesia. This study used Limousin, Holstein, and Ongole Grade bulls divided into two groups based on fertility, high-fertility (HF) and low fertility (LF). The semen quality assessment included progressive motility (computer-assisted semen analysis), viability (eosin-nigrosine), and plasma membrane integrity (HOS test). Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) was assessed using the acridine orange staining and the Halomax test. Sperm PRM deficiency was evaluated with the chromomycin A3 method. Moreover, PRM1 gene expression was measured using qRT-PCR, and the PRM1 protein abundance was measured with the enzyme immunoassay method. Semen quality values, relative expression of PRM1 gene, and quantity of PRM1 protein were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in HF bulls than in LF bulls. The SDF and PRM deficiency values in LF bulls were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than HF bulls. Additionally, PRM1 at the gene and protein levels correlated significantly (p < 0.01) with fertility. Therefore, PRM1 is a potential candidate for fertility markers in bulls in Indonesia. View Full-Text
Keywords: fertility marker; frozen-thawed spermatozoa; gene expression; breeding bulls; protamine-1; protein abundance fertility marker; frozen-thawed spermatozoa; gene expression; breeding bulls; protamine-1; protein abundance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pardede, B.P.; Agil, M.; Karja, N.W.K.; Sumantri, C.; Supriatna, I.; Purwantara, B. PRM1 Gene Expression and Its Protein Abundance in Frozen-Thawed Spermatozoa as Potential Fertility Markers in Breeding Bulls. Vet. Sci. 2022, 9, 111. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030111

AMA Style

Pardede BP, Agil M, Karja NWK, Sumantri C, Supriatna I, Purwantara B. PRM1 Gene Expression and Its Protein Abundance in Frozen-Thawed Spermatozoa as Potential Fertility Markers in Breeding Bulls. Veterinary Sciences. 2022; 9(3):111. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030111

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pardede, Berlin Pandapotan, Muhammad Agil, Ni Wayan Kurniani Karja, Cece Sumantri, Iman Supriatna, and Bambang Purwantara. 2022. "PRM1 Gene Expression and Its Protein Abundance in Frozen-Thawed Spermatozoa as Potential Fertility Markers in Breeding Bulls" Veterinary Sciences 9, no. 3: 111. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9030111

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