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Open AccessArticle

Risk Factors of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae Occurrence in Farms in Reunion, Madagascar and Mayotte Islands, 2016–2017

1
Animals, Health, Territories, Risks and Ecosystems, Avenue Agropolis, 34398 Montpellier CEDEX 5, France
2
Bacteriology laboratory, Félix Guyon Hospital, Saint-Denis, 97400 Reunion, France
3
UMR PIMIT, CNRS 9192, INSERM U1187, IRD 249, F-97418 Sainte-Clotilde, La Réunion, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5010022
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
In South Western Indian ocean (IO), Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are a main public health issue. In livestock, ESBL-E burden was unknown. The aim of this study was estimating the prevalence of ESBL-E on commercial farms in Reunion, Mayotte and Madagascar and genes involved. Secondly, risk factors of ESBL-E occurrence in broiler, beef cattle and pig farms were explored. In 2016–2017, commercial farms were sampled using boot swabs and samples stored at 4 °C before microbiological analysis for phenotypical ESBL-E and gene characterization. A dichotomous questionnaire was performed. Prevalences observed in all production types and territories were high, except for beef cattle in Reunion, which differed significantly. The most common ESBL gene was blaCTX-M-1. Generalized linear models explaining ESBL-E occurrence varied between livestock production sectors and allowed identifying main protective (e.g., water quality control and detergent use for cleaning) and risk factors (e.g., recent antibiotic use, other farmers visiting the exploitation, pet presence). This study is the first to explore tools for antibiotic resistance management in IO farms. It provides interesting hypothesis to explore about antibiotic use in IO territories and ESBL-E transmission between pig, beef cattle and humans in Madagascar. View Full-Text
Keywords: Indian ocean; livestock; extended-spectrum β-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae; risk factors; CTX-M; enzymes Indian ocean; livestock; extended-spectrum β-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae; risk factors; CTX-M; enzymes
MDPI and ACS Style

Gay, N.; Leclaire, A.; Laval, M.; Miltgen, G.; Jégo, M.; Stéphane, R.; Jaubert, J.; Belmonte, O.; Cardinale, E. Risk Factors of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae Occurrence in Farms in Reunion, Madagascar and Mayotte Islands, 2016–2017. Vet. Sci. 2018, 5, 22.

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